Clin Orthop Surg.  2021 Sep;13(3):307-314. 10.4055/cios20293.

Mini-Screws-Only Fixation Method for Small Fragments of Medial Malleolus Fractures

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Regional Rheumatoid and Degenerative Arthritis Center, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea

Abstract

Background
Open reduction and internal fixation is the standard treatment for a displaced medial malleolus fracture (MMFx), achieving ankle stability and bony union to prevent post-traumatic arthritis. Previous fixation techniques including tension band wiring and unicortical screw fixation are not optimal for fixation of small fragments in MMFx due to their small size and poor manipulability. Here, we describe a novel surgical method using mini-screws only for fixation of small fragments in MMFx.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective consecutive study of patients who underwent surgery using mini-screws for small fragment MMFx between April 2013 and March 2018. We reviewed the patients’ clinical characteristics and assessed the fracture features radiographically. Clinical outcomes were assessed by measuring the range of motion of both ankle joints and investigating symptomatic implants. We reviewed the radiographic outcomes of the medial malleolus and the functional outcomes using the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) at the last follow-up.
Results
Nine patients were included in the study. The minimal follow-up period was 27 months. There was no incidental bone breakage during the procedure. All MMFx healed without reduction loss, nonunion, or implant failure at the last follow-up. Two patients had mild osteoarthritic changes of the ankle joint. The mean FAOS score of the patients was 80.99 (range, 65.44–98.42). No patients required removal of the hardware.
Conclusions
Fixation of comminuted fractures of the medial malleolus using mini-screws for young adult patients is a straightforward and simple technique. Safe fixation of the anterior and posterior colliculi reduces the risk of implant irritation symptoms that necessitate implant removal.

Keyword

Ankle fracture; Medial malleolus; Comminution; Mini-screw; Interfragmentary fixation
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