Neurointervention.  2021 Jul;16(2):149-157. 10.5469/neuroint.2021.00192.

Long Vascular Sheaths for Transfemoral Neuroendovascular Procedures in Children

  • 1Neuroradiology and Image Guided Therapy, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada
  • 2Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada


To evaluate the safety and efficacy of long vascular sheaths for transfemoral neuroendovascular procedures in children.
Materials and Methods
A retrospective evaluation of transfemoral neuroendovascular procedures in children <18 years, using long sheaths was undertaken analyzing procedure type, fluoroscopic times, technical success, access site and systemic complications. Twenty-seven consecutive procedures were included over a two-year period. Mean age was 8.4 years (standard deviation [SD] 6.3) (range 17.0 months–16.3 years).
Patients were 44% female and mean weight was 35.0 kg (SD 22.8) (range 9.8–72.2 kg). A third of the procedures were performed in ≤15 kg children. The most common procedure was for embolization (n=13, 48.1%) and the most common indication was dual microcatheter technique (52%). The most common device used was the 5 Fr Cook Shuttle sheath. Mean fluoroscopy time was 61.9 minutes (SD 43.1). Of these procedures, 93% were technically successful. Femoral vasospasm, when present, was self-limiting. Complications (3/27, 11.1%) included groin hematoma (n=1), neck vessel spasm that resolved with verapamil (n=1), and intracranial thromboembolism (n=1), with no significant difference between the ≤15 kg and >15 kg subcohorts. There were no aorto-femoro-iliac or limb-ischemic complications.
Long vascular sheaths without short femoral sheaths can be safely used for pediatric neuroendovascular procedures as they effectively increase inner diameter access without increasing the outer sheath diameter. This property increases the range of devices used and intracranial techniques that can be safely performed without arterial compromise, thus increasing the repertoire of the neurointerventionist.


Angiography; Catheter; Pediatrics; Feasibility study; Radiology
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