J Adv Prosthodont.  2021 Jun;13(3):160-171. 10.4047/jap.2021.13.3.160.

Color stability of 3D-printed denture resins: effect of aging, mechanical brushing and immersion in staining medium

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • 2College of Dentistry, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Purpose
This in-vitro study evaluated and compared the color stability of 3D-printed and conventional heat-polymerized acrylic resins following aging, mechanical brushing, and immersion in staining medium.
Materials and methods
Forty disc-shaped specimens (10 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick) were prepared from two 3D-printed [DentaBASE (DB) and Denture 3D+ (D3D)] and one conventional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture materials. The specimens were thermo-cycled, subjected to mechanical brushing, and were immersed in either coffee, lemon juice, coke, or artificial saliva (AS) to simulate one and two years of oral use. Color measurements of the specimens were recorded by a spectrophotometer at baseline (T0), and after one (T1) and two years (T2) of simulation. The color changes (ΔE) were determined and also quantified according to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) units. Descriptive statistics, followed by factorial ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test (α=.05), were applied for data analysis.
Results
The independent factors, namely material, staining medium, and immersion time, and interaction among these factors significantly influenced ΔE (P <.009). Irrespective of the materials, treatments, and time, the highest and the lowest mean ∆Es were observed for PMMA in lemon juice (4.58 ± 1.30) and DB in AS (0.41 ± 0.18), respectively. Regarding the material type, PMMA demonstrated the highest mean ∆E (2.31 ± 1.37), followed by D3D (1.67 ± 0.66), and DB (0.85 ± 0.52), and the difference in ΔE between the materials were statistically significant (P <.001). All the specimens demonstrated a decreased color changes at T2 compared to T1, and this difference in mean ∆E was statistically significant (P <.001).
Conclusion
The color changes of 3D-printed denture resins were low compared to conventional heat polymerized PMMA. All the tested materials, irrespective of the staining medium used, demonstrated a significant decrease in ∆E values over time.

Keyword

3D-printing; CAD/CAM technologies; Stereolithography; Polymethylmethacrylate; Colour change; Acrylic resins
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