J Korean Acad Pediatr Dent.  2021 May;48(2):198-208. 10.5933/JKAPD.2021.48.2.198.

Antibacterial Effect on Enterococcus Faecalis and Physical Properties of Chitosan Added Calcium Hydroxide Canal Filling Material

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatric Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Dankook University
  • 2Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University
  • 3Department of Nanobiomedical Science & BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University
  • 4Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University
  • 5UCL Eastman-Korea Dental Medicine Innovation Centre, Dankook University

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect on Enterococcus Faecalis and physical properties of chitosan added calcium hydroxide canal filling material.
Low, medium, high molecular weights of chitosan powder were mixed with calcium hydroxide canal filling material. Also, for each molecular weight group, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 wt% of chitosan powder were added. An overnight culture of E. faecalis was adjusted to 1 × 106 CFU/ml. For test of antibacterial effect, three different molecular weights of 2.0 wt% chitosan and three different concentrations of high molecular weight chitosan were mixed with calcium hydroxide canal filling material. The absorbance of plates was analyzed using spectrophotometer at 570 nm with a reference wavelength of 600 nm. Physical properties such as flow, film thickness and radiopacity were examined according to ISO 6876 : 2012.
All molecular weight type of chitosan containing material showed inhibitory effect against E. faecalis growth compared to non-chitosan added calcium hydroxide canal filling material group (p < 0.05). High molecular weight chitosan containing material showed the most antibacterial effect. Also, the antibacterial effect decreased as the incorporated amount of chitosan decreased (p < 0.05). Every molecular weight group of material containing chitosan had a tendency for reduced flow and radiopacity, increased film thickness according to amount of chitosan. Low molecular weight of 1.0 wt% chitosan addition did not show any significant difference of physical properties compared to conventional calcium hydroxide canal filling material.
In conclusion, for reinforcement of antibacterial effect against E. faecalis and for favorable physical properties, 2.0 wt% of chitosan adding is recommended. Considering its antibacterial effect of chitosan, further studies are required for clinical application of chitosan in endodontics and pediatric dentistry.

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