Asian Nurs Res.  2021 May;15(2):150-156. 10.1016/j.anr.2021.02.004.

Comparison of Bleeding, Hematoma, Pain, and Discomfort After Bone Marrow Examination With or Without Sandbag Compression

  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Republic of Korea
  • 2Department of Nursing, Chungbuk National University, Republic of Korea
  • 3Department of Internal Medicine, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea
  • 4Department of Nursing, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Republic of Korea


A safe and effective hemostatic care is necessary after bone marrow examination to minimize bleeding, pain, and discomfort. However, a standardized hemostatic care protocol following bone marrow examination has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in bleeding, hematoma, pain, and discomfort by the hemostatic method used following bone marrow examination.
This study was carried out with a pre-test/post-test nonequivalent control group design. Sixty-four patients undergoing bone marrow examination at the hemato-oncology ward in a tertiary hospital in South Korea were assigned to an intervention (n = 30) and comparison group (n = 34). The intervention group was treated using a compression dressing alone, while the comparison group received a compression dressing followed by sandbag compression. Both groups received two hours of bedrest. Bleeding, hematoma, pain, and discomfort were measured at one and two hours after the biopsy.
No significant differences in the occurrence of bleeding between the groups at one and two hours after bone marrow examination were observed, and no participant developed hematoma. The intervention group had significantly lower pain than the comparison group two hours after the bone marrow examination as well as lower discomfort one hour and two hours after the bone marrow examination (p < .05).
Applying only compression dressing after a bone marrow examination is effective in reducing pain and discomfort without measurable differences in bleeding and hematoma, suggesting that compression dressings alone could be effective in lowering pain and discomfort following bone marrow examination.


bone marrow examination; hematoma; hemorrhage; pain; patient comfort
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