Arch Craniofac Surg.  2021 Feb;22(1):26-32. 10.7181/acfs.2020.00689.

Evaluation and management of facial granuloma caused by various injection materials

  • 1Department of Plastic Surgery, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Plastic Surgery, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea


Various substances are currently being used for cosmetic or postsurgical reconstruction reasons. Injecting of various materials into the face may provoke inflammatory or granulomatous reactions, infection and tissue necrosis. Among these reactions are foreign body granulomas. This study aims to describe the clinical characteristics of and therapeutic approaches used in patients with facial foreign body granulomas caused by the injection of various substances.
From 2007 to 2020, a total of 64 patients visited our hospital due to inflammatory signs, palpable masses or surface irregularities. We reviewed patient characteristics, type of injected material, medical history and treatment outcomes. The treatment results were scored with patient satisfaction and statistical analysis of the treatment period was performed.
Most patients underwent conservative treatment followed by surgical treatment because of persistent symptoms; one patient did not require surgery. All patients reported good treatment results and satisfaction. The earlier the surgical treatment was performed, the shorter the treatment period and the higher patient satisfaction scoring.
Granulomatous changes to the face are an emerging concern in various cosmetic procedures and surgeries, including fillers, silicone implants and autologous fat injections. Our findings strongly suggest that patient symptoms require accurate diagnosis and surgical treatment.


Fat; Granuloma, foreign body; Inflammation
Full Text Links
  • ACFS
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2023 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: