Immune Netw.  2021 Feb;21(1):e5. 10.4110/in.2021.21.e5.

Ongoing Clinical Trials of Vaccines to Fight against COVID-19 Pandemic

  • 1Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Science & Biotechnology, Adamas University, Kolkata 700126, India
  • 2Institute for Skeletal Aging & Orthopedic Surgery, Hallym University-Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
  • 3Department of Zoology, Fakir Mohan University, Balasore 756020, India
  • 4Neuropsychopharmacology and Toxicology Program, College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has developed as a pandemic, and it created an outrageous effect on the current healthcare and economic system throughout the globe. To date, there is no appropriate therapeutics or vaccines against the disease. The entire human race is eagerly waiting for the development of new therapeutics or vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Efforts are being taken to develop vaccines at a rapid rate for fighting against the ongoing pandemic situation. Amongst the various vaccines under consideration, some are either in the preclinical stage or in the clinical stages of development (phase-I, -II, and -III). Even, phase-III trials are being conducted for some repurposed vaccines like Bacillus Calmette–Guérin, polio vaccine, and measlesmumps-rubella. We have highlighted the ongoing clinical trial landscape of the COVID-19 as well as repurposed vaccines. An insight into the current status of the available antigenic epitopes for SARS-CoV-2 and different types of vaccine platforms of COVID-19 vaccines has been discussed. These vaccines are highlighted throughout the world by different news agencies. Moreover, ongoing clinical trials for repurposed vaccines for COVID-19 and critical factors associated with the development of COVID-19 vaccines have also been described.


Vaccines; Clinical trial; COVID-19; Repurposed vaccines; SARS-CoV-2
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