J Lipid Atheroscler.  2021 Jan;10(1):1-7. 10.12997/jla.2021.10.1.1.

Inborn Errors of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation: Overview from a Clinical Perspective

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics and Medical Genetics & Genomics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Abstract

Mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (mFAO), which is the major pathway for the degradation of fatty acids and is critical for maintaining energy homeostasis in the human body, consists of carnitine transport, the carnitine shuttle, and fatty acid β-oxidation. Inherited metabolic defects of mFAO result in more than 15 distinct mFAO disorders (mFAODs) with varying clinical manifestations. The common elements of the clinical presentation of mFAODs are hypoketotic hypoglycemia, (cardio)myopathy, arrhythmia, and rhabdomyolysis, indicating the importance of FAO during fasting or stressful situations. The management of all mFAODs includes avoidance of fasting, aggressive treatment during illness, and supplementation of carnitine or appropriate nutritional support, if necessary. Through the introduction of newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry, early identification of mFAODs became feasible, leading to an early initiation of treatment with improved outcomes. However, many unmet needs remain with regard to the long-term management of patients with mFAODs.

Keyword

Mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (mFAO); Metabolic defects of mFAO
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