J Periodontal Implant Sci.  2020 Oct;50(5):327-339. 10.5051/jpis.2000380019.

Local tissue effects of various barrier membranes in a rat subcutaneous model

  • 1Clinic of Reconstructive Dentistry, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2Department of Periodontology, Periodontal-Implant Clinical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University School of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Conservative Dentistry, University of Chile, School of Dentistry, Santiago, Chile
  • 4Department of Oral Biology, Medical University of Vienna, School of Dentistry, Vienna, Austria
  • 5Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea


The purpose of this study was to examine the local tissue reactions associated with 3 different poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) prototype membranes and to compare them to the reactions associated with commercially available resorbable membranes in rats.
Seven different membranes—3 synthetic PLGA prototypes (T1, T2, and T3) and 4 commercially available membranes (a PLGA membrane, a poly[lactic acid] membrane, a native collagen membrane, and a cross-linked collagen membrane)—were randomly inserted into 6 unconnected subcutaneous pouches in the backs of 42 rats. The animals were sacrificed at 4, 13, and 26 weeks. Descriptive histologic and histomorphometric assessments were performed to evaluate membrane degradation, visibility, tissue integration, tissue ingrowth, neovascularization, encapsulation, and inflammation. Means and standard deviations were calculated.
The histological analysis revealed complete integration and tissue ingrowth of PLGA prototype T1 at 26 weeks. In contrast, the T2 and T3 prototypes displayed slight to moderate integration and tissue ingrowth regardless of time point. The degradation patterns of the 3 synthetic prototypes were similar at 4 and 13 weeks, but differed at 26 weeks. T1 showed marked degradation at 26 weeks, whereas T2 and T3 displayed moderate degradation. Inflammatory cells were present in all 3 prototype membranes at all time points, and these membranes did not meaningfully differ from commercially available membranes with regard to the extent of inflammatory cell infiltration.
The 3 PLGA prototypes, particularly T1, induced favorable tissue integration, exhibited a similar degradation rate to native collagen membranes, and elicited a similar inflammatory response to commercially available non–cross-linked resorbable membranes. The intensity of inflammation associated with degradable dental membranes appears to relate to their degradation kinetics, irrespective of their material composition.


Guided tissue regeneration; Bone regeneration; Materials testing; Polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid copolymer; Dental implants
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