Acute Crit Care.  2020 Nov;35(4):249-254. 10.4266/acc.2020.00381.

Risk factors for intensive care unit admission and mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients

  • 1Medical College, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
  • 2Department of Internal Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
  • 3Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
  • 4Department of Infectious Diseases, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan


This study investigated the clinical features and outcome of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to our quaternary care hospital.
In this retrospective cohort study, we included all adult patients with COVID-19 infection admitted to a quaternary care hospital in Pakistan from March 1 to April 15, 2020. The extracted variables included demographics, comorbidities, presenting symptoms, laboratory tests and radiological findings during admission. Outcome measures included in-hospital mortality and length of stay.
Sixty-six COVID-19 patients were hospitalized during the study period. Sixty-one percent were male and 39% female; mean age was 50.6±19.1 years. Fever and cough were the most common presenting symptoms. Serial chest X-rays showed bilateral pulmonary opacities in 33 (50%) patients. The overall mortality was 14% and mean length of stay was 8.4±8.9 days. Ten patients (15%) required intensive care unit (ICU) care during admission, of which six (9%) were intubated. Age ≥60 years, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, ICU admission, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio ≥3.3, and international normalized ratio ≥1.2 were associated with increased risk of mortality.
We found a mortality rate of 14% in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 cases are still increasing exponentially around the world and may overwhelm healthcare systems in many countries soon. Our findings can be used for early identification of patients who may require intensive care and aggressive management in order to improve outcomes.


COVID-19; critical illness; outcomes assessment
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