Int J Gastrointest Interv.  2020 Oct;9(4):177-183. 10.18528/ijgii200031.

Recent developments in endoscopic ultrasonography-guided gastroenterostomy

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan

Abstract

Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) can be caused by benign and malignant diseases. GOO often leads to a decreased quality of life, because of nausea, vomiting, and problems with oral food intake. Traditionally, surgical gastrojejunostomy (SGJ) has been the primary treatment for GOO. Endoscopic enteral stenting (EES) has also been carried out for the treatment of malignant GOO. In recent years, endoscopic ultrasonography-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE) using a lumen apposing metal stent has emerged as a procedure to treat patients with GOO, as an alternative to surgery or to standard endoscopy when EES is not possible. Various techniques, such as direct EUS-GE, assisted EUS-GE, and EUS-guided balloon-occluded gastrojejunostomy bypass have been established to perform EUS-GE safety and accurately. Previous reports of EUS-GE with lumen apposing metal stent demonstrated that the technical and clinical success rates were 87% to 100% and 84% to 100%, respectively, without differentiating the various procedural techniques. The adverse events rate ranged from 0% to 18.1%, and included stent misdeployment, bleeding, peritonitis, leakage, abdominal pain, etc. In addition, the reintervention rate ranged from 0% to 15.1%. Moreover, a comparison of EUS-GE and SGJ showed that there was no significant difference in clinical success, rate of adverse events, or need for reintervention between these procedures. On the other hand, studies comparing EUS-GE with EES showed that EUS-GE may have higher clinical success and a lower rate of stent failure requiring repeated intervention than EES. Furthermore, EUS-GE has been used in several clinical scenarios, such as the management of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, or for the treatment of afferent loop syndrome. The present review describes the presently available EUS-GE techniques and introduces the recent clinical advances in the treatment of GOO.

Keyword

Endoscopic enteral stenting; Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided gastroenterostomy; Gastric outlet obstruction; Surgical gastrojejunostomy
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