Clin Orthop Surg.  2020 Sep;12(3):396-403. 10.4055/cios20026.

Clinical and Radiological Outcomes after Various Treatments of Midshaft Clavicle Fractures in Adolescents

  • 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon, Korea


Controversy exists about the optimal treatment of midshaft clavicle fractures in the presence of significant displacement, comminution, or shortening of the fracture in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and radiological outcomes of 4 different treatments for midshaft clavicle fractures in adolescents: conservative treatment with a figure-of-8 (FO8) brace, open reduction and internal fixation with a plate (OPL), minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO), and intramedullary nail fixation with a threaded Steinmann pin (TSP).
A total of 94 teenagers with midshaft clavicle fractures were divided into the FO8, OPL, MIPO, and TSP groups (n = 24, 33, 16, and 21, respectively). We analyzed clinical and radiological outcomes and complications in each group and compared the results among the groups.
All groups showed satisfactory clinical and radiological outcomes, but each group showed different results for the assessment items. The Constant-Murley scores were higher in the operated groups than in the FO8 group. Recovery of joint motion was faster in the operated groups. The TSP group had the highest cosmetic satisfaction with respect to the satisfaction score and measured scar length. Fracture union was achieved in all patients. At the final follow-up, the bone length was closer to normal in the OPL and TSP groups than in the FO8 and MIPO groups, and angulation was less in the OPL and TSP groups than in the MIPO and FO8 groups. The TSP and MIPO groups obtained faster bone healing than the OPL and FO8 groups. In the operated groups, 9 patients had metal-induced irritating symptoms; 1, supraclavicular nerve injury symptoms; and 4, refractures after plate removal.
The nonoperatively treated group had no iatrogenic complications. The operated groups complained of various disadvantages induced by surgery; however, these groups achieved faster functional recovery and slightly better radiological and functional results than the nonoperative group.


Adolescent; Midshaft clavicle fracture; Figure of eight bandage; Plate; Threaded Steinmann pin fixation
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