J Obes Metab Syndr.  2020 Mar;29(1):26-38. 10.7570/jomes19042.

Three-Month Daily Consumption of Sugar-SweetenedBeverages Affects the Liver, Adipose Tissue, andGlucose Metabolism

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea

Abstract

Background
Growing evidence suggests links between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and metabolicdisorders. We investigated the effects of SSBs commonly consumed by adolescents and their relationships toglucose metabolism and fatty liver.
Methods
We treated 7-week old male C57BL/6 mice with water (control) or one of three different SSBs, carbonated soda (Coca-Cola), sweetened milk coffee (Maxwell), or chocolate-added cocoa (Choco-Latte), for 13weeks (n=10 in each group). Half of the animals were fed a regular chow diet and the other half a high-fat diet(40% fat). Body composition and biochemical variables were investigated at the end of treatment. Histology ofthe liver and adipose tissue, as well as molecular signaling related to glucose and lipid metabolism, were alsoevaluated.
Results
During the 13-week treatment, mice treated with chocolate-added cocoa or sweetened milk coffeeshowed significantly greater increases in body weight compared with controls, especially when fed a high-fatdiet. Fasting glucose level was higher in the three SSB-treated groups compared with the control group. Lipiddroplets in the liver, fat cell size, and number of CD68-positive cells in adipose tissue were greater in the SSBtreated groups than in the control group. SSB treatments increased the expression of genes related to inflammatory processes in the liver and adipose tissue. Phosphorylation of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase in musclewas significantly reduced in SSB-treated groups.
Conclusion
Daily consumption of SSBs over 3 months lead to metabolic impairment and weight gain andmay contribute to development of metabolic diseases.

Keyword

Sugar-sweetened beverage; Fatty liver; Glucose homeostasis; Diabetes mellitus; Insulin resistance
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