J Korean Med Sci.  2020 Jul;35(29):e240. 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e240.

Efficacy of the ‘Children in Disaster: Evaluation and Recovery (CIDER)’ Protocol for Traumatized Adolescents in Korea

  • 1Department of Meditation Psychology, Nungin University, Hwaseong, Korea
  • 2Department of Psychiatry, Myongji Hospital, Goyang, Korea
  • 3Department of Psychiatry, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Korea
  • 4Hallym University Suicide and School Mental Health Institute, Anyang, Korea
  • 5Department of Psychiatry, Eulji University Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea


We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of trauma-focused group therapy in adolescents exposed to traumatic events in Korea.
We recruited 22 adolescents (mean age, 16 years; standard deviation, 1.43; range, 13–18 years). Children in Disaster: Evaluation and Recovery (CIDER) V1.0 is a trauma-focused group therapy comprising eight 50-minute-long sessions. The effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated using the Korean version of the Children's Response to Traumatic Events Scale-Revised (K-CRTES-R), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State Anxiety Inventory for Children (SAIC), and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). The data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
A significant improvement was revealed in trauma-related symptom scores (Z = −2.85, P < 0.01), depressive symptom scores (Z = −2.35, P< 0.05) and quality of life scores (Z = −3.08, P< 0.01). Additionally, a marginally significant improvement was found in anxiety symptom scores (Z = −1.90, P = 0.058).
CIDER is a potentially effective intervention for adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Larger controlled trials are needed.


CIDER; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; Trauma; Adolescent; Trauma-focused Group Psychotherapy
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