J Korean Diabetes.  2020 Jun;21(2):93-97. 10.4093/jkd.2020.21.2.93.

Nutrition Care in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

  • 1Department of Dietetics, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea


Maintaining blood glucose levels within recommended targets during pregnancy is associated with improved maternal and fetal outcomes. Optimal gestational nutrition care is required for maintenance of normoglycemia, appropriate gestational weight gain and prevention of ketosis. Energy intake is not different from pregnant women without diabetes and an optimal eating plan for gestational diabetes has not been not developed. Because carbohydrates affect blood glucose levels, especially postprandial levels, it is important to monitor the quantity and quality of carbohydrate intake in women with gestational diabetes. Macronutrient and micronutrient planning must be considered. After childbirth, postpartum care is important to women with gestational diabetes mellitus. To decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and hypertension, weight control and breastfeeding is recommended to women with gestational diabetes mellitus.


Blood glucose; Carbohydrates; Diabetes, gestational; Nutrition therapy


1. Rasmussen KM, Yaktine AL; Institute of Medicine (U.S.), Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines. Weight gain during pregnancy: reexamining the guidelines. Washington, DC: National Academies Press;2009.
2. Sato T, Sugiyama T, Kurakata M, Saito M, Sugawara J, Yaegashi N, Sagawa N, Sanaka M, Akazawa S, Anazawa S, Waguri M, Sameshima H, Hiramatsu Y, Toyoda N. Pregnancy outcomes in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a retrospective multi-institutional study in Japan. Endocr J. 2014; 61:759–64.
3. Secher AL, Parellada CB, Ringholm L, Asbjörnsdóttir B, Damm P, Mathiesen ER. Higher gestational weight gain is associated with increasing offspring birth weight independent of maternal glycemic control in women with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2014; 37:2677–84.
4. Parellada CB, Asbjörnsdóttir B, Ringholm L, Damm P, Mathiesen ER. Fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with type 2 diabetes: an observational study. Diabet Med. 2014; 31:1681–9.
5. Asbjörnsdóttir B, Rasmussen SS, Kelstrup L, Damm P, Mathiesen ER. Impact of restricted maternal weight gain on fetal growth and perinatal morbidity in obese women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2013; 36:1102–6.
6. Park JE, Park S, Daily JW, Kim SH. Low gestational weight gain improves infant and maternal pregnancy outcomes in overweight and obese Korean women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2011; 27:775–81.
7. Ministry of Health and Welfare. Job standards and practical toolkits for clinical nutrition therapy: diabetes mellitus, cancer, dyslipidemia. Sejong: Ministry of Health and Welfare;2015. p. 46–9.
8. Kaiser L, Allen LH; American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008; 108:553–61.
9. Kitzmiller JL, Block JM, Brown FM, Catalano PM, Conway DL, Coustan DR, Gunderson EP, Herman WH, Hoffman LD, Inturrisi M, Jovanovic LB, Kjos SI, Knopp RH, Montoro MN, Ogata ES, Paramsothy P, Reader DM, Rosenn BM, Thomas AM, Kirkman SM. Managing preexisting diabetes for pregnancy: summary of evidence and consensus recommendations for care. Diabetes Care. 2008; 31:1060–79.
10. Evert AB, Franz MJ. American Diabetes Association guide to nutrition therapy for diabetes. 3rd ed.Arlington: American Diabetes Association;2017.
11. The Korean Nutrition Society. Dietary reference intakes for Koreans 2015. Sejong: Ministry of Health and Welfare;2015.
12. Mahan LK, Raymond JL. Krause’s food & the nutrition care process. 14th ed.Philadelphia: Saunders;2017. p. 586–618.
13. Blumer I, Hadar E, Hadden DR, Jovanovič L, Mestman JH, Murad MH, Yogev Y. Diabetes and pregnancy: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98:4227–49.
14. Roskjær AB, Andersen JR, Ronneby H, Damm P, Mathiesen ER. Dietary advices on carbohydrate intake for pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2015; 28:229–33.
15. Mennitti LV, Oliveira JL, Morais CA, Estadella D, Oyama LM, Oller do Nascimento CM, Pisani LP. Type of fatty acids in maternal diets during pregnancy and/or lactation and metabolic consequences of the offspring. J Nutr Biochem. 2015; 26:99–111.
16. Hu ZG, Tan RS, Jin D, Li W, Zhou XY. A low glycemic index staple diet reduces postprandial glucose values in Asian women with gestational diabetes mellitus. J Investig Med. 2014; 62:975–9.
17. Perichart-Perera O, Balas-Nakash M, Rodríguez-Cano A, Legorreta-Legorreta J, Parra-Covarrubias A, Vadillo-Ortega F. Low glycemic index carbohydrates versus all types of carbohydrates for treating diabetes in pregnancy: a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effect of glycemic control. Int J Endocrinol. 2012; 2012:296017.
18. Louie JC, Markovic TP, Ross GP, Foote D, Brand-Miller JC. Timing of peak blood glucose after breakfast meals of different glycemic index in women with gestational diabetes. Nutrients. 2012; 5:1–9.
19. Ehrenthal DB, Maiden K, Rogers S, Ball A. Postpartum healthcare after gestational diabetes and hypertension. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014; 23:760–4.
20. Reader D, Franz MJ. Lactation, diabetes, and nutrition recommendations. Curr Diab Rep. 2004; 4:370–6.
21. Zhang BZ, Zhang HY, Liu HH, Li HJ, Wang JS. Breastfeeding and maternal hypertension and diabetes: a population-based cross-sectional study. Breastfeed Med. 2015; 10:163–7.
22. Chouinard-Castonguay S, Weisnagel SJ, Tchernof A, Robitaille J. Relationship between lactation duration and insulin and glucose response among women with prior gestational diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013; 168:515–23.
Full Text Links
  • JKD
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2023 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr