Ultrasonography.  2020 Jul;39(3):191-220. 10.14366/usg.20057.

The AFSUMB Consensus Statements and Recommendations for the Clinical Practice of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound using Sonazoid

  • 1Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kindai University, Higashi-Osaka, Japan
  • 3Department of Radiology, Chung Ang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 4Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 5Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Technology, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan
  • 6Department of Radiology, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 7Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 8Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
  • 9Department of Ultrasound, Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Disease, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan
  • 10Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
  • 11Gastroenterological Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan
  • 12Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
  • 13Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan
  • 14Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Toho University Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan
  • 15Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Takamatsu Red Cross Hospital, Takamatsu, Japan
  • 16Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Wakayama Medical University Hospital, Wakayama, Japan
  • 17Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery Division and Artificial Organ and Transplantation Division, Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
  • 18Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 19Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Chang Gung University, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 20Ultrasound Section, Division of Surgery, Department of Gastroenterology, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen Academy for Medical Education and Simulation, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 21National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
  • 22Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway


The first edition of the guidelines for the use of ultrasound contrast agents was published in 2004, dealing with liver applications. The second edition of the guidelines in 2008 reflected changes in the available contrast agents and updated the guidelines for the liver, as well as implementing some nonliver applications. The third edition of the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) guidelines was the joint World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (WFUMB-EFSUMB) venture in conjunction with other regional US societies such as Asian Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, resulting in a simultaneous duplicate on liver CEUS in the official journals of both WFUMB and EFSUMB in 2013. However, no guidelines were described mainly for Sonazoid due to limited clinical experience only in Japan and Korea. The new proposed consensus statements and recommendations provide general advice on the use of Sonazoid and are intended to create standard protocols for the use and administration of Sonazoid in hepatic and pancreatobiliary applications in Asian patients and to improve patient management.


Pancreatobiliary; Sonazoid; Contrast media; Consensus; Liver; Ultrasonography
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