J Korean Ophthalmol Soc.  2020 May;61(5):587-590. 10.3341/jkos.2020.61.5.587.

Orbital Apex Syndrome with Perinuclear Anti-neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-associated Pachymeningitis

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea
  • 2Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea

Abstract

Purpose
To report a rare case of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated pachymeningitis presenting as bilateral orbital apex syndrome. Case summary: A 79-year-old female presented with a visual acuity decrease and ophthalmoplegia in both eyes from 1 week prior to her visit. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse hypertrophy and enhancement of the dura mater near the optic canal and superior orbital fissure causing orbital apex syndrome. The serum titer of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody was elevated. Based on these findings, she was diagnosed with pachymeningitis related to perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. The antibody titers decreased and ophthalmoplegia recovered after treatment with high dose intravenous steroid injection, cyclophosphamide, and long-term maintenance therapy with oral azathioprine and prednisolone. However, her visual acuity did not improve in either eye.
Conclusions
Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis can present as orbital apex syndrome and should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

Keyword

Pachymeningitis; Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody
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