J Gastric Cancer.  2020 Mar;20(1):1-18. 10.5230/jgc.2020.20.e8.

Disadvantages of Complete No. 10 Lymph Node Dissection in Gastric Cancer and the Possibility of Spleen-Preserving Dissection: Review

Affiliations
  • 1Division of Gastric Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka, Japan. m.terashima@scchr.jp

Abstract

Splenic hilar lymph node dissection has been the standard treatment for advanced proximal gastric cancer. Splenectomy is typically performed as part of this procedure. However, splenectomy has some disadvantages, such as increased risk of postoperative complications, especially pancreatic fistula. Moreover, patients who underwent splenectomy are vulnerable to potentially fatal infection caused by encapsulated bacteria. Furthermore, several studies have shown an association of splenectomy with cancer development and increased risk of thromboembolic events. Therefore, splenectomy should be avoided if it does not confer a distinct oncological advantage. Most studies that compared patients who underwent splenectomy and those who did not failed to demonstrate the efficacy of splenectomy. Based on the results of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Japan, prophylactic dissection with splenectomy is no longer recommended in patients with gastric cancer with no invasion of the greater curvature. However, patients with greater curvature invasion or those with remnant gastric cancer still need to undergo splenectomy to facilitate splenic hilar node dissection. Spleen-preserving splenic hilar node dissection is a new procedure that may help delink splenic hilar node dissection and splenectomy. In this review, we examine the evidence pertaining to the efficacy and disadvantages of splenectomy. We discuss the possibility of spleen-preserving surgery for prophylactic splenic hilar node dissection to overcome the disadvantages of splenectomy.

Keyword

Review; Splenectomy; Lymph node dissection; Gastric cancer

MeSH Terms

Bacteria
Humans
Japan
Lymph Node Excision*
Lymph Nodes*
Pancreatic Fistula
Postoperative Complications
Splenectomy
Stomach Neoplasms*
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