J Korean Neurosurg Soc.  2019 Jul;62(4):476-486. 10.3340/jkns.2019.0104.

Quantitative Feasibility Evaluation of ¹¹C-Methionine Positron Emission Tomography Images in Gamma Knife Radiosurgery : Phantom-Based Study and Clinical Application

  • 1Department of Neurosurgery, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Hwasun, Korea. breadot@hanmail.net
  • 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Hwasun, Korea.


The functional information of ¹¹C-methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET) images can be applied for Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) and its image quality may affect defining the tumor. This study conducted the phantom-based evaluation for geometric accuracy and functional characteristic of diagnostic MET-PET image co-registered with stereotactic image in Leksell GammaPlan® (LGP) and also investigated clinical application of these images in metastatic brain tumors.
Two types of cylindrical acrylic phantoms fabricated in-house were used for this study : the phantom with an array-shaped axial rod insert and the phantom with different sized tube indicators. The phantoms were mounted on the stereotactic frame and scanned using computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and PET system. Three-dimensional coordinate values on co-registered MET-PET images were compared with those on stereotactic CT image in LGP. MET uptake values of different sized indicators inside phantom were evaluated. We also evaluated the CT and MRI co-registered stereotactic MET-PET images with MR-enhancing volume and PET-metabolic tumor volume (MTV) in 14 metastatic brain tumors.
Imaging distortion of MET-PET was maintained stable at less than approximately 3% on mean value. There was no statistical difference in the geometric accuracy according to co-registered reference stereotactic images. In functional characteristic study for MET-PET image, the indicator on the lateral side of the phantom exhibited higher uptake than that on the medial side. This effect decreased as the size of the object increased. In 14 metastatic tumors, the median matching percentage between MR-enhancing volume and PET-MTV was 36.8% on PET/MR fusion images and 39.9% on PET/CT fusion images.
The geometric accuracy of the diagnostic MET-PET co-registered with stereotactic MR in LGP is acceptable on phantom-based study. However, the MET-PET images could the limitations in providing exact stereotactic information in clinical study.


Radiosurgery; Positron-emission tomography; Multimodal imaging; Phantoms, Imaging; Brain neoplasms

MeSH Terms

Brain Neoplasms
Clinical Study
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Multimodal Imaging
Phantoms, Imaging
Positron-Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography
Positron-Emission Tomography*
Tumor Burden
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