Sleep Med Psychophysiol.  2019 Jun;26(1):5-15. 10.14401/KASMED.2019.26.1.5.

Assessment and Understanding of Chronotype

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.


Chronotype (CT) is defined as an inter-individual difference in sleep-wake cycles and daily activities. Previous studies have suggested that this individual difference can influence our biological and psychological functioning. Literature regarding the psychometric properties and validity of CT measures are reviewed. We provide an overview of biological indicators (sleep-wake cycle, body temperature, cortisol, and melatonin) that are used for distinguishing two chronotypes: morningness (MT) and eveningness (ET). We also review the differences between CT in relation to personality traits and the occurrence of psychopathology. In addition, the methodological limitations of studies on CT are discussed. Finally, future research directions in terms of CT are proposed.


Chronotype; Circadian typology; Eveningness; Morningness
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