Nutr Res Pract.  2019 Apr;13(2):141-149. 10.4162/nrp.2019.13.2.141.

Noodle consumption is positively associated with incident hypertension in middle-aged and older Korean women

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi 17104, Republic of Korea. kjhye@khu.ac.kr
  • 2Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. ykang12@jhu.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES
This study examined the association between refined grain consumption by subtype and the incidence of hypertension from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study data.
SUBJECTS/METHODS
In total, 5,018 participants (2,439 men and 2,579 women) from 40 to 69 years without hypertension were recruited at the beginning (2001-2002). Blood pressure and antihypertensive medication use were assessed biennially for the incidence of hypertension during the 8-year follow-up period (2009-2010). Hypertension was diagnosed as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg or antihypertensive medication use. Dietary intake including refined grains was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire at baseline and the follow-up (2005-2006). A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to examine hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident hypertension according to refined-grain consumption.
RESULTS
A total of 1,377 cases of hypertension (710 men and 667 women) were newly ascertained. Frequent noodle consumers (≥ 5 servings/week) among the women had a 2.3-fold higher risk of hypertension than infrequent noodle consumers after adjustment for potential confounders (HR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.33-4.01, P for trend = 0.0001). However, no significant association was found among the men. The intake of other refined grain products such as white rice and breads was not associated with the incidence of hypertension.
CONCLUSIONS
Frequent noodle consumption was positively associated with a risk of incident hypertension in South Korean women.

Keyword

Grain; noodle; hypertension; gender

MeSH Terms

Blood Pressure
Bread
Epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Genome
Humans
Hypertension*
Incidence
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
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