J Obes Metab Syndr.  2018 Sep;27(3):143-149. 10.7570/jomes.2018.27.3.143.

Hypertriglyceridemia in Obese Children and Adolescents

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea. pedyoo@cha.ac.kr

Abstract

The increasing prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a serious public health concern. Hypertriglyceridemia is common in obese children and adolescents, and elevated triglyceride (TG) level is a known biomarker of cardiometabolic risk. Results from genetic studies suggest that TG and TG-rich lipoproteins and, more specifically, remnant cholesterol are in the causal pathway of cardiovascular disease. However, simultaneous measurement of all remnants has not yet been established, and plasma TG level can be used as a useful marker of remnant cholesterol. Adipose tissue dysfunction, including impaired adipocyte TG storage and release of fatty acids, mediates the development of obesity-related complications. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia increases in overweight or obese children and is associated with other cardiometabolic risk factors. Recently, the TG/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio was recognized as a marker of structural vascular changes and insulin resistance in obese youth. Recent guidelines recommend universal lipid screening with nonfasting non-HDL-C measurement in children at 9-11 years of age; however, fasting lipid profiles should be measured in obese children and overweight adolescents and in those with high non-HDL-C in universal screening. The primary approach to lower TG in children includes dietary and lifestyle modifications; however, children with severe hypertriglyceridemia should also be referred to a pediatric lipid specialist.

Keyword

Hypertriglyceridemia; Obesity; Child
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