Psychiatry Investig.  2018 Jun;15(6):602-612. 10.30773/pi.2018.01.14.

Low Income as a Vulnerable Factor to the Effect of Noise on Insomnia

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • 2Department of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Republic of Korea.
  • 3Department of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Changwon, Republic of Korea.
  • 4Department of Psychiatry, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Republic of Korea. drpark98@naver.com
  • 5Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong, Republic of Korea.

Abstract


OBJECTIVE
The present study aimed to examine the potential mediating effect of income level on the association between noise exposure and insomnia.
METHODS
706 individuals were evaluated in conjunction with 2014 noise map data from Seoul, South Korea. Cross-sectional analysis was performed to examine differences in noise level according to household income, while three separate logistic regression models were used to examine factors influencing insomnia. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated after adjusting for depression, anxiety, auditory acuity and noise sensitivity in the first model. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic variables in the second model, lifestyle factors and medical illnesses in the third model.
RESULTS
Noise level was significantly associated with an increased risk of insomnia in the low-income group, although no such association was observed in the high-income group. Groups exposed to >60 dB of noise (Lden; day-evening-night equivalent) exhibited a 1.79-fold increase in the incidence of insomnia relative to those exposed to <50 dB. The result was significant after adjusting sociodemographic variables, although not significant when adjusted for lifestyle factors and medical illnesses.
CONCLUSION
Individuals with low income may be more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of noise exposure on health. Various aspects including income should be considered to ascertain the influence of noise on insomnia.

Keyword

Noise; Insomnia; Income; Mental health; Cross-sectional study

MeSH Terms

Anxiety
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression
Family Characteristics
Incidence
Korea
Life Style
Logistic Models
Mental Health
Negotiating
Noise*
Odds Ratio
Seoul
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders*
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