Korean J Orthod.  2017 Mar;47(2):100-107. 10.4041/kjod.2017.47.2.100.

Smile esthetics: Evaluation of long-term changes in the transverse dimension

  • 1Department of Orthodontics, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. sercan.akyalcin@tufts.edu
  • 2Private Practice, Queensbury, NY, USA.
  • 3Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA.
  • 4Private Practice, Arlington, TX, USA.


To analyze the long-term changes in maxillary arch widths and buccal corridor ratios in orthodontic patients treated with and without premolar extractions.
The study included 53 patients who were divided into the extraction (n = 28) and nonextraction (n = 25) groups. These patients had complete orthodontic records from the pretreatment (T1), posttreatment (T2), and postretention (T3) periods. Their mean retention and postretention times were 4 years 2 months and 17 years 8 months, respectively. Dental models and smiling photographs from all three periods were digitized to compare the changes in three dental arch width measurements and three buccal corridor ratios over time between the extraction and nonextraction groups. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance tests. Post-hoc multiple comparisons were made using Bonferroni correction.
Soft-tissue extension during smiling increased with age in both groups. The maximum dental width to smile width ratio (MDW/SW) also showed a favorable increase with treatment in both groups (p < 0.05), and remained virtually stable at T3 (p > 0.05). According to the MDW/SW ratio, the mean difference in the buccal corridor space of the two groups was 2.4 ± 0.2% at T3. Additionally, no significant group × time interaction was found for any of the buccal corridor ratios studied.
Premolar extractions did not negatively affect transverse maxillary arch widths and buccal corridor ratios. The long-term outcome of orthodontic treatment was comparable between the study groups.


Esthetics; Stability; Extraction
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