Korean J Ophthalmol.  2017 Apr;31(2):177-179. 10.3341/kjo.2017.31.2.177.

The Penumbra Obscura Stimulates Iris Neovascularisation after Isolated Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

  • 1Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, Manchester, UK. david.mcleod@nhs.net


No abstract available.

MeSH Terms

Retinal Artery Occlusion*
Retinal Artery*


  • Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of oxygenation-based tissue compartments in the inner retina after central retinal artery occlusion (pink, normoxic periphery; pale blue, hypoxic mid-periphery; unshaded/white, anoxic posterior pole (as in references [3] and [5]). The penumbra obscura lies between threshold oxygen tension isobars at ≈30° and ≈55° eccentricity from the foveolar cherry-red spot. Dashed red lines emanating from the optic disc signify cattle-trucking in the central arterial tree.


1. Jung YH, Ahn SJ, Hong JH, et al. Incidence and clinical features of neovascularization of the iris following acute central retinal artery occlusion. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2016; 30:352–359.
2. Duker JS, Brown GC. Iris neovascularization associated with obstruction of the central retinal artery. Ophthalmology. 1988; 95:1244–1250.
3. McLeod D, Beatty S. Evidence for an enduring ischaemic penumbra following central retinal artery occlusion, with implications for fibrinolytic therapy. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2015; 49:82–119.
4. Hayreh SS. Acute retinal arterial occlusive disorders. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2011; 30:359–394.
5. McLeod D. Ischemic penumbra in retina endures: vascular neuropathology is reconciled. Neural Regen Res. 2016; 11:737–739.
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