Anesth Pain Med.  2016 Oct;11(4):366-374. 10.17085/apm.2016.11.4.366.

Assessment of chloral hydrate-centered pediatric sedation performed by non-anesthesiologists

  • 1Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.


We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of chloral hydrate-based pediatric sedation conducted by non-anesthesiologists.
The design and setting of this study was a single-center retrospective study performed at a tertiary university hospital between July 2012 and May 2013. A total of 519 children were enrolled in this study. We investigated the sedation medication, age of patients and type of diagnostic tests or procedures and evaluated the success rate of sedation, sedation/recovery profiles and adverse events.
Most patients underwent moderate sedation for diagnostic tests. The most commonly used sedative drug was chloral hydrate, which was solely used for 482 patients. A combination of chloral hydrate/midazolam was used for 24 patients and midazolam only was used for 13 patients. Use of chloral hydrate resulted in a sedation success rate of 65.5% after the initial dose and a success rate of 95.2% with additional doses. The sedation failure rate in children > 6 years was significantly higher than that in children under 6 years. In all patients, the overall onset time and recovery time were too slow and long, respectively, and there was no critical complication.
This study demonstrated that chloral hydrate-based pediatric sedation conducted by non-anesthesiologists was mostly moderate, with a high success rate and a low complication rate. However, the overall onset time and recovery time were too slow and long, respectively. Especially, alternative sedation regimens are required in children > 6 years considering the slower onset time and higher failure rate of sedation.


Child; Chloral hydrate; Midazolam; Non-anesthesiologists; Sedation

MeSH Terms

Chloral Hydrate
Conscious Sedation
Diagnostic Tests, Routine
Retrospective Studies
Chloral Hydrate
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