J Korean Soc Ther Radiol Oncol.  1999 Jun;17(2):113-119.

Low Dose Cisplatin as a Radiation Sensitizer in Management of Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: Evaluation of Acute Toxicity and Early Response

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Inha University Medical College, Inchon, Korea..
  • 2Department of Hemato-Oncology, Inha University Medical College, Inchon, Korea..

Abstract

PURPOSE
To evaluate possible acute toxicity and early response of concurrent radiation therapy and low dose daily cisplatin as a radiosensitizer in patients with locally advanced uterine cervical carcinomas.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
From December 1996 to January 1999, 38 previously untreated patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (from stage IIB to stage IIIB) were treated at Inha University Hospital. All patients underwent standard pretreatment staging procedures after the initial evaluation by gynecologists and radiation oncologists. Sixteen patients with huge cervical mass (>4 cm) were submitted to the group treated with concurrent radiation therapy and low dose daily cisplatin while the remainder was treated with radiation therapy alone. Radiation therapy consisted of 4500 cGy external beam irradiation to whole pelvis (midline block after 3060 cGy), 900~1000 cGy boost to involved parametrium, and high dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (a total dose of 3000~3500 cGy/500 cGy per fraction to point A, twice per week). In the group treated with low dose cisplatin concurrently, 10 mg of daily intravenous cisplatin was given from the 1st day of radiation therapy to the 20th day of radiation therapy. Acute toxicity was measured according to expanded common toxicity criteria of the NCI (C) Clinical Trials. Early response data were analyzed at minimum 4 weeks' follow-up after completion of the treatment protocol.
RESULTS
Hematolgic toxicity was more prominent in patients treated with radiation therapy and cisplatin. Six of 16 patients (37.5%) treated with radiation therapy and cisplatin and one of 22 patients (4.5%) treated with radiation therapy alone experienced grade 3 leukopenia. In Fisher's exact test, there was statistically significant difference between two groups regarding leukopenia (P=0.030). There was no apparent difference in the frequency of gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity between two groups (P=0.066). Three of 16 patients (18.7%) treated with radiation therapy and cisplatin and two of 22 patients (9.1%) treated with radiation therapy alone experienced more than 5 kg weight loss during the treatment. There was no statistically significant difference on weight loss between two groups (P=0.63). Two patients on each group were not evaluable for the early response because of incomplete treatment. The complete response rate at four weeks' follow-up was 80% (16/20) for the radiation therapy alone group and 78% (11/14) for the radiation therapy and cisplatin group. There was no statistically significant difference in early response between two treatment groups (P=0.126).
CONCLUSION
This study led to the conclusion that the hematologic toxicity from the treatment with concurrent radiation therapy and low dose daily cisplatin seems to be more prominent than that from the treatment of radiation therapy alone. There was no grade 4 hematologic toxicity or mortality in both groups. The hematologic toxicity in both treatment groups seems to be well managable medically. Since the risk factors were not balanced between two treatment groups, the direct comparison of early response of both groups was not possible. However, preliminary results regarding early response for patients with bulky cervical tumor mass treated with radiation therapy and low dose daily cisplatin was encouraging. Longer follow-up is necessary to evaluate the survival data. A phase III study is needed to evaluate the efficacy of concurrent daily low dose cisplatin with radiation therapy in bulky cervical cancer.

Keyword

Cervical cancer; Concurrent chemoradiotherapy; Radiation sensitizer
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