J Korean Soc Menopause.  2013 Aug;19(2):54-63.

The Relationship of Hot Flush to Other Menopausal Symptoms and Chronic Disease Related to Menopause

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan, Korea. wooki1974@empal.com

Abstract

Hot flush is one of the most commonly reported symptoms during menopause and it is referred to as vasomotor symptoms along with night sweats. I have summarized the current available knowledge on the relationships between hot flush to other menopausal symptoms and the related chronic diseases to menopause in this article.

Keyword

Chronic disease; Hot flush; Menopausal symptoms

MeSH Terms

Chronic Disease
Female
Menopause
Sweat

Reference

1. The North American Menopause Society. Treatment of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2004; 11:11–33.
2. Palacios S, Henderson VW, Siseles N, Tan D, Villaseca P. Age of menopause and impact of climacteric symptoms by geographical region. Climacteric. 2010; 13:419–428.
3. Stearns V, Ullmer L, López JF, Smith Y, Isaacs C, Hayes D. Hot flushes. Lancet. 2002; 360:1851–1861.
4. Fritz MA, Speroff L. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;2011.
5. Kronenberg F. Hot flashes: epidemiology and physiology. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990; 592:52–86. discussion 123-33.
6. Huang AJ, Grady D, Jacoby VL, Blackwell TL, Bauer DC, Sawaya GF. Persistent hot flushes in older postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med. 2008; 168:840–846.
7. National Institutes of Health. National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference statement: management of menopause-related symptoms. Ann Intern Med. 2005; 142:1003–1013.
8. Choi H, Lee HK, Park HM. The Korean menopausal women's attitudes and awareness on menopause: results of Korean gallup epidemiologic survey on menopause and HRT. J Korean Soc Menopause. 2003; 9:36–43.
9. Avis NE, Crawford S, Stellato R, Longcope C. Longitudinal study of hormone levels and depression among women transitioning through menopause. Climacteric. 2001; 4:243–249.
10. Dennerstein L, Dudley EC, Hopper JL, Guthrie JR, Burger HG. A prospective population-based study of menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 96:351–358.
11. Kim H, Choi YM. Non-hormonal management of vasomotor symptoms. J Korean Soc Menopause. 2007; 13:157–163.
12. Rossmanith WG, Ruebberdt W. What causes hot flushes? The neuroendocrine origin of vasomotor symptoms in the menopause. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009; 25:303–314.
13. Rapkin AJ. Vasomotor symptoms in menopause: physiologic condition and central nervous system approaches to treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007; 196:97–106.
14. Freedman RR. Pathophysiology and treatment of menopausal hot flashes. Semin Reprod Med. 2005; 23:117–125.
15. Deecher DC, Dorries K. Understanding the pathophysiology of vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes and night sweats) that occur in perimenopause, menopause, and postmenopause life stages. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2007; 10:247–257.
16. Sassarini J, Lumsden MA. Hot flushes: are there effective alternatives to estrogen? Menopause Int. 2010; 16:81–88.
17. Col NF, Guthrie JR, Politi M, Dennerstein L. Duration of vasomotor symptoms in middle-aged women: a longitudinal study. Menopause. 2009; 16:453–457.
18. Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Lin H, Gracia CR, Kapoor S, Ferdousi T. The role of anxiety and hormonal changes in menopausal hot flashes. Menopause. 2005; 12:258–266.
19. LeBlanc ES, Neiss MB, Carello PE, Samuels MH, Janowsky JS. Hot flashes and estrogen therapy do not influence cognition in early menopausal women. Menopause. 2007; 14:191–202.
20. Thurston RC, Joffe H. Vasomotor symptoms and menopause: findings from the Study of Women's Health across the Nation. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2011; 38:489–501.
21. Gold EB, Colvin A, Avis N, Bromberger J, Greendale GA, Powell L, et al. Longitudinal analysis of the association between vasomotor symptoms and race/ethnicity across the menopausal transition: study of Women's health across the nation. Am J Public Health. 2006; 96:1226–1235.
22. Gibson CJ, Thurston RC, Bromberger JT, Kamarck T, Matthews KA. Negative affect and vasomotor symptoms in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Daily Hormone Study. Menopause. 2011; 18:1270–1277.
23. Bromberger JT, Kravitz HM. Mood and menopause: findings from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) over 10 years. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2011; 38:609–625.
24. Bromberger JT, Matthews KA, Schott LL, Brockwell S, Avis NE, Kravitz HM, et al. Depressive symptoms during the menopausal transition: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). J Affect Disord. 2007; 103:267–272.
25. Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Lin H, Nelson DB. Associations of hormones and menopausal status with depressed mood in women with no history of depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006; 63:375–382.
26. Oppermann K, Fuchs SC, Donato G, Bastos CA, Spritzer PM. Physical, psychological, and menopause-related symptoms and minor psychiatric disorders in a community-based sample of Brazilian premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2012; 19:355–360.
27. Cohen LS, Soares CN, Vitonis AF, Otto MW, Harlow BL. Risk for new onset of depression during the menopausal transition: the Harvard study of moods and cycles. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006; 63:385–390.
28. Fuh JL, Wang SJ, Lee SJ, Lu SR, Juang KD. A longitudinal study of cognition change during early menopausal transition in a rural community. Maturitas. 2006; 53:447–453.
29. Sullivan Mitchell E, Fugate Woods N. Midlife Women's attributions about perceived memory changes: observations from the Seattle Midlife Women's Health Study. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2001; 10:351–362.
30. Balabanovic J, Ayers B, Hunter MS. Women's experiences of Group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for hot flushes and night sweats following breast cancer treatment: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Maturitas. 2012; 72:236–242.
31. Joffe H, Hall JE, Gruber S, Sarmiento IA, Cohen LS, Yurgelun-Todd D, et al. Estrogen therapy selectively enhances prefrontal cognitive processes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with functional magnetic resonance imaging in perimenopausal and recently postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2006; 13:411–422.
32. Maki PM, Drogos LL, Rubin LH, Banuvar S, Shulman LP, Geller SE. Objective hot flashes are negatively related to verbal memory performance in midlife women. Menopause. 2008; 15:848–856.
33. Greendale GA, Wight RG, Huang MH, Avis N, Gold EB, Joffe H, et al. Menopause-associated symptoms and cognitive performance: results from the study of Women's health across the nation. Am J Epidemiol. 2010; 171:1214–1224.
34. Holte A. Influences of natural menopause on health complaints: a prospective study of healthy Norwegian women. Maturitas. 1992; 14:127–141.
35. Hunter M. The south-east England longitudinal study of the climacteric and postmenopause. Maturitas. 1992; 14:117–126.
36. Avis NE, Brambilla D, McKinlay SM, Vass K. A longitudinal analysis of the association between menopause and depression. Results from the Massachusetts Women's Health Study. Ann Epidemiol. 1994; 4:214–220.
37. Baker A, Simpson S, Dawson D. Sleep disruption and mood changes associated with menopause. J Psychosom Res. 1997; 43:359–369.
38. Kuh DL, Wadsworth M, Hardy R. Women's health in midlife: the influence of the menopause, social factors and health in earlier life. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1997; 104:923–933.
39. Kravitz HM, Ganz PA, Bromberger J, Powell LH, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Meyer PM. Sleep difficulty in women at midlife: a community survey of sleep and the menopausal transition. Menopause. 2003; 10:19–28.
40. Kravitz HM, Zhao X, Bromberger JT, Gold EB, Hall MH, Matthews KA, et al. Sleep disturbance during the menopausal transition in a multi-ethnic community sample of women. Sleep. 2008; 31:979–990.
41. Young T, Rabago D, Zgierska A, Austin D, Laurel F. Objective and subjective sleep quality in premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study. Sleep. 2003; 26:667–672.
42. Freedman RR, Roehrs TA. Lack of sleep disturbance from menopausal hot flashes. Fertil Steril. 2004; 82:138–144.
43. Freedman RR, Roehrs TA. Sleep disturbance in menopause. Menopause. 2007; 14:826–829.
44. Thurston RC, Santoro N, Matthews KA. Are vasomotor symptoms associated with sleep characteristics among symptomatic midlife women? Comparisons of self-report and objective measures. Menopause. 2012; 19:742–748.
45. Rossouw JE, Prentice RL, Manson JE, Wu L, Barad D, Barnabei VM, et al. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease by age and years since menopause. JAMA. 2007; 297:1465–1477.
46. Huang AJ, Sawaya GF, Vittinghoff E, Lin F, Grady D. Hot flushes, coronary heart disease, and hormone therapy in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2009; 16:639–643.
47. Whiteman MK, Staropoli CA, Langenberg PW, McCarter RJ, Kjerulff KH, Flaws JA. Smoking, body mass, and hot flashes in midlife women. Obstet Gynecol. 2003; 101:264–272.
48. Cagnacci A, Cannoletta M, Palma F, Zanin R, Xholli A, Volpe A. Menopausal symptoms and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in postmenopause. Climacteric. 2012; 15:157–162.
49. van der Schouw YT, Grobbee DE. Menopausal complaints, oestrogens, and heart disease risk: an explanation for discrepant findings on the benefits of post-menopausal hormone therapy. Eur Heart J. 2005; 26:1358–1361.
50. Leal M, Díaz J, Serrano E, Abellan J, Carbonell LF. Hormone replacement therapy for oxidative stress in postmenopausal women with hot flushes. Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 95:804–809.
51. Sassarini J, Fox H, Ferrell W, Sattar N, Lumsden MA. Vascular function and cardiovascular risk factors in women with severe flushing. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011; 74:97–103.
52. Gast GC, Grobbee DE, Pop VJ, Keyzer JJ, Wijnands-van Gent CJ, Samsioe GN, et al. Menopausal complaints are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertension. 2008; 51:1492–1498.
53. Gast GC, Samsioe GN, Grobbee DE, Nilsson PM, van der Schouw YT. Vasomotor symptoms, estradiol levels and cardiovascular risk profile in women. Maturitas. 2010; 66:285–290.
54. Tuomikoski P, Ylikorkala O, Mikkola TS. Menopausal hot flushes and vascular health. Ann Med. 2011; 43:283–291.
55. Tuomikoski P, Mikkola TS, Hämäläinen E, Tikkanen MJ, Turpeinen U, Ylikorkala O. Biochemical markers for cardiovascular disease in recently postmenopausal women with or without hot flashes. Menopause. 2010; 17:145–151.
56. Yeboah J, Crouse JR, Hsu FC, Burke GL, Herrington DM. Brachial flow-mediated dilation predicts incident cardiovascular events in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Circulation. 2007; 115:2390–2397.
57. Iribarren C, Sidney S, Sternfeld B, Browner WS. Calcification of the aortic arch: risk factors and association with coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. JAMA. 2000; 283:2810–2815.
58. Rumberger JA, Brundage BH, Rader DJ, Kondos G. Electron beam computed tomographic coronary calcium scanning: a review and guidelines for use in asymptomatic persons. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999; 74:243–252.
59. Thurston RC, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Everson-Rose SA, Hess R, Powell LH, Matthews KA. Hot flashes and carotid intima media thickness among midlife women. Menopause. 2011; 18:352–358.
60. Bechlioulis A, Kalantaridou SN, Naka KK, Chatzikyriakidou A, Calis KA, Makrigiannakis A, et al. Endothelial function, but not carotid intima-media thickness, is affected early in menopause and is associated with severity of hot flushes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 95:1199–1206.
61. Thurston RC, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Everson-Rose SA, Hess R, Matthews KA. Hot flashes and subclinical cardiovascular disease: findings from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Heart Study. Circulation. 2008; 118:1234–1240.
62. Allison MA, Manson JE, Aragaki A, Langer RD, Rossouw J, Curb D, et al. Vasomotor symptoms and coronary artery calcium in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2010; 17:1136–1145.
63. Lobo RA. Evaluation of cardiovascular event rates with hormone therapy in healthy, early postmenopausal women: results from 2 large clinical trials. Arch Intern Med. 2004; 164:482–484.
64. Szmuilowicz ED, Manson JE, Rossouw JE, Howard BV, Margolis KL, Greep NC, et al. Vasomotor symptoms and cardiovascular events in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2011; 18:603–610.
65. Svartberg J, von Muhlen D, Kritz-Silverstein D, Barrett-Connor E. Vasomotor symptoms and mortality: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Menopause. 2009; 16:888–891.
66. Pines A. Vasomotor symptoms and cardiovascular disease risk. Climacteric. 2011; 14:535–536.
67. Rogers A, Eastell R. Circulating osteoprotegerin and receptor activator for nuclear factor kappaB ligand: clinical utility in metabolic bone disease assessment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 90:6323–6331.
68. Hanada R, Leibbrandt A, Hanada T, Kitaoka S, Furuyashiki T, Fujihara H, et al. Central control of fever and female body temperature by RANKL/RANK. Nature. 2009; 462:505–509.
69. Gast GC, Grobbee DE, Pop VJ, Keyzer JJ, Wijnands-van Gent CJ, Samsioe GN, et al. Vasomotor symptoms are associated with a lower bone mineral density. Menopause. 2009; 16:231–238.
70. Tural A, Yoldemir T, Erenus M. Assessment of bone mineral density should be considered earlier in perimenopausal women with vasomotor symptoms. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009; 107:114–116.
71. Crandall CJ, Zheng Y, Crawford SL, Thurston RC, Gold EB, Johnston JM, et al. Presence of vasomotor symptoms is associated with lower bone mineral density: a longitudinal analysis. Menopause. 2009; 16:239–246.
72. Crandall CJ, Tseng CH, Crawford SL, Thurston RC, Gold EB, Johnston JM, et al. Association of menopausal vasomotor symptoms with increased bone turnover during the menopausal transition. J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26:840–849.
73. von Mühlen DG, Soroko S, Kritz-Silverstein D, Barrett-Connor E. Vasomotor symptoms are not associated with reduced bone mass in postmenopausal women: the Rancho Bernardo Study. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2000; 9:505–511.
74. Huang Y, Malone KE, Cushing-Haugen KL, Daling JR, Li CI. Relationship between menopausal symptoms and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011; 20:379–388.
75. Schilling C, Gallicchio L, Miller SR, Langenberg P, Zacur H, Flaws JA. Genetic polymorphisms, hormone levels, and hot flashes in midlife women. Maturitas. 2007; 57:120–131.
76. Guthrie JR, Dennerstein L, Hopper JL, Burger HG. Hot flushes, menstrual status, and hormone levels in a population-based sample of midlife women. Obstet Gynecol. 1996; 88:437–442.
77. Erlik Y, Meldrum DR, Judd HL. Estrogen levels in postmenopausal women with hot flashes. Obstet Gynecol. 1982; 59:403–407.
78. Cuzick J, Sestak I, Cella D, Fallowfield L. Treatmentemergent endocrine symptoms and the risk of breast cancer recurrence: a retrospective analysis of the ATAC trial. Lancet Oncol. 2008; 9:1143–1148.
Full Text Links
  • JKSM
Actions
Cited
CITED
export Copy
Close
Share
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2022 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr