Sleep Med Psychophysiol.  2003 Jun;10(1):52-60.

Automatic Detection of Stage 1 Sleep Utilizing Simultaneous Analyses of EEG Spectrum and Slow Eye Movement

  • 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Department of Psychiagry and Behavioral Science and Division of Sleep Studies at Seoul National University and Hospital, Seoul, Korea.


Stage 1 sleep provides important information regarding interpretation of nocturnal polysomnography, particularly sleep onset. It is a short transition period from wakeful consciousness to sleep. The lack of prominent sleep events characterizing stage 1 sleep is a major obstacle in automatic sleep stage scoring. In this study, utilization of simultaneous EEG and EOG processing and analyses to detect stage 1 sleep automatically were attempted.
Relative powers of the alpha waves and the theta waves were calculated from spectral estimation. A relative power of alpha waves less than 50% or relative power of theta waves more than 23% was regarded as stage 1 sleep. SEM (slow eye movement) was defined as the duration of both-eye movement ranging from 1.5 to 4 seconds, and was also regarded as stage 1 sleep. If one of these three criteria was met, the epoch was regarded as stage 1 sleep. Results were compared to the manual rating results done by two polysomnography experts.
A total of 169 epochs were analyzed. The agreement rate for stage 1 sleep between automatic detection and manual scoring was 79.3% and Cohen's Kappa was 0.586 (p<0.01). A significant portion (32%) of automatically detected stage 1 sleep included SEM.
Generally, digitally-scored sleep staging shows accuracy up to 70%. Considering potential difficulty in stage 1 sleep scoring, accuracy of 79.3% in this study seems to be strong enough. Simultaneous analysis of EOG differentiates this study from previous ones which mainly depended on EEG analysis. The issue of close relationship between SEM and stage 1 sleep raised by Kinnari remains a valid one in this study


Digital analysis; Slow eye movement; Stage 1 sleep
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