Sleep Med Psychophysiol.  2000 Jun;7(1):5-9.

Nonpharmacological Treatment of Insomnia

Affiliations
  • 1Yong-In Mental Hospital, Yong-In, Korea.

Abstract

Several nonpharmacological treatment methods of insomnia and their effects were reviewed. A long-term use of most hypnotics may produce tolerance, dependence, cognitive and psychomotor impairments at daytime, shallow sleep, and rebound insomnia on drug withdrawal. To reduce hypnotic abuse, nonpharmacological strategies have been developed to correct disordered behavioral and cognitive factors. These treatments aim at modifying maladaptive sleep habits, lowering physiological and cognitive arousal leves, and correcting dysfuctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep. These nonpharmacological or cognitive behavior treatments include stimulus control, sleep restriction, relaxation training, sleep hygiene education, cognitive therapy, and light therapy. Among them the stimulus control therapy has been demonstrated most effective as a single treatment or in combination with other treatments. Through nonpharmacological treatments, sleep latency was most significantly reduced and wake time after sleep onset was also reduced. About 50% of insomniacs reported clinical improvements in terms of nearly normalized sleep latency, awakening time, sleep efficiency, and reduction of hypnotic use. Compared to the hypnotic therapy, nonpharmacological treatment are more cost-effective and more readily accepted by patients, and their effects last longer.

Keyword

Nonpharmacological treatment; Insomnia; Stimulus control; Behavioral and cognitive treatment

MeSH Terms

Arousal
Cognitive Therapy
Education
Humans
Hygiene
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Phototherapy
Psychomotor Disorders
Relaxation
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders*
Hypnotics and Sedatives
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