Korean J Obstet Gynecol.  2010 Jul;53(7):565-578. 10.5468/kjog.2010.53.7.565.

A general perspective on breast disease and training system for breast cancer specialists in Europe

  • 1Mirae & Heemang Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic, Seoul, Korea. hoenil@gmail.com


Breast is a female reproductve organ and breast disease is closely related to female reproductive function. In recent years, becoming the most frequent cancer in female, breast cancer has emerged as a major health concern for Korean women. Obtaining basic knowledge about breast disease is crucial for the specialists dealing with female reproductive organs. In this article a brief overview over the management of breast cancer as well as benign breast disease will be presented. In addition, the current stauts of training system for breast cancer in Europe will be discussed. Examinations of the current practices in Europe will be able to guide the effort in Korea to incorporate breast diseae into the field of gynecology.


Breast cancer; Benign breast disease; Europe

MeSH Terms

Breast Diseases
Breast Neoplasms


  • Fig. 1 Breast cancer incidence worldwide in year 2002 (per 100,000 women).13

  • Fig. 2 (A) Histopathology of invasive dcatal carcinoma: Forming ductal configuration, pleomorphic tumor cells with increased mitotic figures invade the stromal tissue. (B) Histopathology of invasive lobular carcinoma: The tumor cells are small and uniform with round nuclei and grow in anIndian file fashion (H&E stain, ×20).

  • Fig. 3 Postoperative treatment algorithm for early stage breast cancer according to the clinicopathologic risk factors. LN: lymph node, ER: estrogen receptor, PR: progesterone receptor, HER-2: human epidermal growth factor recetor type 2, AI: aromatase inhibitor, pT: pathologic T stage. *LVSI: lymphovascualr space invasion, †Tam: tamoxifern.

  • Fig. 4 Wide local excision for early stage breast cancer. (A) For non-palpable lesions, a wire is inserted under the guidance of mammogram or ultrasonography. (B) After excison of the breast tissue alongside the wire, intraoperative specimen mammogram should be taken to ensure that the lesion is placed in the center of the specimen (Note the cluster of microcalcification around the wire).

  • Fig. 5 Modified radical mastectomy: 1 pecotralis major muscle, 2 pectoralis minor muscle, 3 axillary vein, 4 thoracodorsal nerve, 5 long thoracic nerve.


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