Korean J Nutr.  2009 Jun;42(4):374-385. 10.4163/kjn.2009.42.4.374.

Development and Validation of Food Security Measure

  • 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Hanyang University, College of Medicine, Seoul 133-791, Korea. kmkkim@hanyang.ac.kr


This study aims to develop an index of food security in order to assess food security status in Korea and to evaluate reliability and validity of the index. The index of food security was developed based on the US Household Food Security Survey Module (US-HFSS). After the US-HFSS was translated and back-translated, it was evaluated and modified by a focus interview for experts. The developed Korean Household Food Security Survey Module (K-HFSS) was tested by cognitive interviews and a pretest for general community population to assess its application for Korean population. For the reliability and validity of K-HFSS, the survey was conducted with 300 adults aged 40 years or more living in a rural community and 212 infants and toddlers living in an urban community. The reliability was assessed by Cronbach' alpha and the validity was evaluated by content validity, construct validity, and criterion-related validity. The questionnaire items of K-HFSS were partly modified, accounting for Korean social and cultural backgrounds and adapted by general community population. The reliability was relatively high, showing Cronbach' alpha coefficients ranged from 0.80 (for adults) to 0.87 (for infants and toddlers). The content and construct validities were all acceptable. The result of criterion-related validity showed that food security status was significantly related to the household income level. In conclusion, the K-HFSS would be used as a reliable and valid instrument to assess food security status in parts of the Korean population.


food security; validity; reliability; measurement

MeSH Terms

Family Characteristics
Food Supply
Surveys and Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Rural Population
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