J Korean Acad Periodontol.  2002 Dec;32(4):697-709. 10.5051/jkape.2002.32.4.697.

Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Effects of Citric Acid on the Change of Implant Surface According to Application Time

  • 1Department of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Korea.


The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of citric acid on the change of implant surface microstructure according to application time. Implants with pure titanium machined surface, titanium plasmasprayed surface, and sand-blasted, large grit, acid etched surface were utilized. Implant surface was rubbed with pH 1 citric acid for 1/2 min., 1 min., 1 1/2 min., 2 min., and 3min. respectively in the test group and implant surface was not treated in the control group. Then, the specimens were processed for scanning electron microscopic observation. The following results were obtained. 1. Both test and control group showed a few shallow grooves and ridges in pure titanium machined surface implants. There were not significant differences between two groups. 2. In titanium plasma-sprayed surfaces, round or amorphous particles were deposited irregularly. The irregularity of titanium plasma-sprayed surfaces conditioned with pH 1 citric acid was lessened and the cracks were increased relative to the application time of pH 1 citric acid. 3. Sand-blasted, large grit, acid etched surfaces showed the macro/micro double roughness. The application of pH 1 citric acid didn't change the characteristics of the sand-blasted, large grit, acid etched surfaces. In conclusion, the application of pH 1 citric acid to titanium plasma-sprayed surface is improper. And pure titanium machined surface implants and sand-blasted, large grit, acid etched surface implants can be treated with pH 1 citric acid for peri-implantitis treatment if the detoxification of these surfaces could be evaluated.


Citric acid; Implant surface; Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM)

MeSH Terms

Citric Acid*
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Citric Acid
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