Immune Netw.  2012 Oct;12(5):196-206. 10.4110/in.2012.12.5.196.

Glutamine and Leucine Provide Enhanced Protective Immunity Against Mucosal Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

Affiliations
  • 1College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-Safety Research Institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Korea. vetvirus@chonbuk.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Immunology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju 561-756, Korea.

Abstract

Besides their role as building blocks of protein, there are growing evidences that some amino acids have roles in regulating key metabolic pathways that are necessary for maintenance, growth, reproduction, and immunity. Here, we evaluated the modulatory functions of several amino acids in protective immunity against mucosal infection of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). We found that glutamine (Gln) and leucine (Leu) showed enhanced protective immunity to HSV-1 mucosal infection when two administration of Gln and single administration of Leu per day, but not when administered in combinations. Ameliorated clinical signs of HSV-1 challenged mice by the intraperitoneal administration of Gln and Leu were closely associated with viral burden and IFN-gamma production in the vaginal tract at 2 and 4 days post-infection. In addition, the enhanced production of vaginal IFN-gamma appeared to be caused by NK and HSV-1 antigen-specific Th1-type CD4+ T cells recruited into vaginal tract of mice treated with Gln and Leu, which indicates that IFN-gamma, produced by NK and Th1-type CD4+ T cells, may be critical to control the outcome of diseases caused by HSV-1 mucosal infection. Collectively, our results indicate that intraperitoneal administration of Gln and Leu following HSV-1 mucosal infection could provide beneficial effects for the modulation of protective immunity, but dosage and frequency of administration should be carefully considered, because higher frequency and overdose of Gln and Leu, or their combined treatment, showed detrimental effects to protective immunity.

Keyword

Glutamine; Leucine; Mucosal infection; Herpes simplex virus; Protective immunity

MeSH Terms

Amino Acids
Animals
Glutamine
Herpes Simplex
Herpesvirus 1, Human
Leucine
Metabolic Networks and Pathways
Methylmethacrylates
Mice
Polystyrenes
Reproduction
Simplexvirus
T-Lymphocytes
Viral Load
Amino Acids
Glutamine
Leucine
Methylmethacrylates
Polystyrenes
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