Korean J Physiol Pharmacol.  2010 Oct;14(5):249-256. 10.4196/kjpp.2010.14.5.249.

Gender-Related Differences in a Process of the Age-Dependent Alterations of the Elements in Monkey Sino-Atrial Node

  • 1Department of Pharmacology, Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Kashihara, Nara University 634-8521, Japan. hysat@naramed-u.ac.jp
  • 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.
  • 3Laboratory of Environmental Biology, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502, Japan.
  • 4Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506, Japan.


Gender differences in the trace elements of monkey sino-atrial (SA) node were investigated in a process of age-dependent alterations. Sixty hearts from Japanese and rhesus monkeys (30 male and 30 female) used were aged ranging from 1-day- to 30-year-old. The elements were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Advancing age decreased all the trace elements. Ca, P, S and Mg significantly decreased. The correlation coefficients of Ca and P were -0.178+/-0.081 (p<0.05) and -0.088+/-0.022 (p<0.05) in male (n=30), and -0.095+/-0.026 (p<0.05) and -0.069+/-0.017 (p<0.05) in female (n=30), respectively. The age-dependent coefficients for Fe/Ca, Zn/Ca, Fe/P, Fe/S, Zn/S, Fe/Mg and Zn/Mg were exhibited markedly in male, but all was less in female. In gender-related differences, only a ratio of P/Ca (p<0.05) was significantly observed with ageing. The trace elements such as Cu, Se and Sn were less detected in the SA nodes. These results indicate that the age-dependent changes in the ratios of elements are appeared more rapidly in male monkey SA node, and the gender difference is observed in ratio of P/Ca. The different attenuations may be involved with the age- and gender-related SA nodal functions.


Gender difference; Trace elements; Age-dependent alteration; Cardiac pacemaker; Monkey sino-atrial node

MeSH Terms

Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Macaca mulatta
Sinoatrial Node
Trace Elements
Trace Elements
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