J Korean Acad Periodontol.  1997 Sep;27(3):621-631. 10.5051/jkape.1997.27.3.621.

Morphometric study of the calculus and periodontal tissues adhered to the root surfaces in periodontitis

  • 1Department of Periodontology, College of Dentistry Yonsei Univeristy Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, Korea.


To verify the effect of subgingival calculus on the periodontal tissues in periodontitis and the effectiveness of supragingival scaling to remove the calculus, 30 teeth from healthy group (Probing pocket depth:PPD< or =mm: HP group), 15 teeth from moderate group (4< or =PD<7mm: MP group), 30 teeth from advanced group (PPD>7mm: AP group) were selected and supragingival scaling was performed before extraction of all experimental teeth. After careful extraction, the teeth were cleaned with saline and disclosed with toluidine blue and carefully examined the relationship and distance between the calculus attached on the root surface and periodontal tissues. As a result, it was; 1. The calculus was not discovered on the root surface of teeth in HP group, but was in MP and AP group, mostly on interproximal surface and furca area. The shape of the attached calculus was ovoid, trepazoid and polygonal and the calculus was distributed randomly over the root surface. 2. PPD was more than the distance between the gingival margin to the level of attached connective tissue in AP group rather than in HP and MP group. 3. The length of calculus was 2.7mm+/-.44mm in HP group and 4.1+/-.89in AP group. 4. The distance between the apical margin of calculus and the level of attached connective tissue was 2.4+/-.33mm in MP group and 3.4+/-.89mm in AP group. 5. The length of subgingival calculus was tended to increase in relation to the probing pocket depth. Therefore, it can be concluded, the calculus in periodontal pocket can not be removed completely with supragingival scaling. As the terminal part of calculus was far away with limited distance from the periodontal tissue, it can be said that the calculus was not a direct factor in destroying the periodontal tissue. In this study, the extent of the plaque was not verified but the location of calculus can be used in clinical practice for complete removal of calculus when the distance relation bewteen calculus and plaque will be known.


Root Surface; Periodontitis; Calculus; Plaque; Pocket Depth

MeSH Terms

Connective Tissue
Dental Scaling
Periodontal Pocket
Tolonium Chloride
Tolonium Chloride
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