J Korean Continence Soc.  2004 Jun;8(1):38-41.

The Temperature Differences among the Three Urethral Portions (Distal, Middle & Proximal) and Bladder in Incontinent Women

  • 1Department of Urology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea. uroljy@catholic.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea.
  • 3Department of Polymer Science & Engineering, Hannam University, Korea.
  • 4Department of Biology, Kyonggi University, Korea.


We tried to find out an adequate sol-gel transition temperature of female urethra for the injection of thermosensitive polymer in incontinent patients. We measured the temperatures of three portions of female urethra and bladder.
Total of 53 female incontinent patients participated, excluding those with any kind of infection which could lead to an elevation of body temperature. The basal body temperatures were checked at the axilla, tympanic membrane and mouth. Temperatures of the proximal(U1), middle(U2), distal(U3) urethra and bladder(B) were measured by a digital thermometer under a lithotomy position. We divided our patients into 3 groups which were patients in follicular phase(F), luteal phase(L) and menopause(M). The temperature difference between the 4 portions of the urethra(D1; between U1 and U2, D2; between U2 and U3, D3: between U3 and B), was also analyzed. Statistics was done by the ANOVA of repeated measures, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 48.1+/-10.7 years. The mean temperature of B, U1, U2, and U3 groups were 37.1+/-0.25 degreesC, 37.0+/-0.25 degreesC, 36.9+/-0.24 degreesC, and 36.7+/-0.25 degreesC. The mean temperature difference of D1, D2, and D3 were 0.2471+/-0.089 degreesC, 0.079+/-0.066 degreesC and 0.066+/-0.058 degreesC. The Pearson correlation coefficient of D1, D2 and D3 were 0.938, 0.965 and 0.970. This showed there was a constant temperature increase from distal urethra to bladder step by step. The number of patients in F, L and M groups were 25(47.2%), 10(18.9%) and 18(33.9%). There was no significant urethral temperature difference at each point(U1, U2, U3 and B) among these three groups. CONCLUSION: There was a constant temperature increase from distal urethra to bladder step by step. This is a baseline study for female urethra for future clinical study. We suggest that our data can be used as deciding the sol-gel transition temperature for thermosensitive polymer injection into incontinent female urethra.


Incontinence; Urethra; Temperature

MeSH Terms

Basal Bodies
Body Temperature
Transition Temperature
Tympanic Membrane
Urinary Bladder*
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