Korean J Intern Med.  2010 Mar;25(1):110-113. 10.3904/kjim.2010.25.1.110.

A Case Report of the Second de Novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in a Patient with the First AML

  • 1Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Catholic Blood and Marrow Transplantation Center, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. cumckim@catholic.ac.kr


Secondary leukemia occurring after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is rare. Secondary AML usually follows autologous and not allogeneic transplants. When a new leukemia develops in a patient successfully treated with an allogeneic HSCT, the possibility of a de novo or secondary leukemia from either the donor or recipient should be considered. We present a case initially diagnosed as de novo AML without a cytogenetic abnormality. The patient was successfully treated with an HLA-matched sibling allogeneic HSCT. However, more than six years later, AML developed again and was associated with new complex cytogenetic abnormalities. After a second HSCT, the patient has been followed without serious complications. Considering the allogeneic setting, the newly developed cytogenetic abnormalities, a relatively long latent period, and the good clinical course after the second allogeneic HSCT, this case might represent a second de novo AML following successful treatment of the first AML.


Leukemia, myeloid, acute; Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

MeSH Terms

Cytogenetic Analysis
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/*adverse effects
Histocompatibility Testing
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/*etiology/pathology/*therapy
Neoplasms, Second Primary/*etiology/pathology
Transplantation, Homologous
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