Yonsei Med J.  2006 Oct;47(5):657-666. 10.3349/ymj.2006.47.5.657.

Soft Tissue Surgery for Equinus Deformity in Spastic Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy: Effects on Kinematic and Kinetic Parameters

  • 1Department and Research Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. medicus@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate how soft tissue surgery for correcting equinus deformity affects the kinematic and kinetic parameters of the ankle and proximal joints. Sixteen children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy and equinus deformities (age range 3-16 years) were included. Soft tissue surgeries were performed exclusively on the ankle joint area in all subjects. Using computerized gait analysis (Vicon 370 Motion Analysis System), the kinematic and kinetic parameters during barefoot ambulation were collected preoperatively and postoperatively. In all 16 children, the abnormally increased ankle plantar flexion and pelvis anterior tilting on the sagittal plane were significantly improved without a weakening of push-off (p < 0.05). In a group of 8 subjects with a recurvatum knee gait pattern before operation, the postoperative kinematic and kinetic parameters of the knee joint were significantly improved (p < 0.05). In a group of 8 subjects with ipsilateral pelvic external rotation before operation, the postoperative pelvic deviations on the transverse plane were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the soft tissue surgery for correcting equinus deformity improves not only the abnormal gait pattern of the ankle, but also that of the knee and pelvis.


Cerebral palsy; equinus; soft tissue surgery; gait analysis

MeSH Terms

Equinus Deformity/*surgery
Child, Preschool
Cerebral Palsy/*surgery
Ankle Joint/physiopathology/surgery


  • Fig. 1 Postoperative ankle kinematic and kinetic parameters on the sagittal plane in all 16 patients, as compared with preoperative and normal values. (A) ankle flexion (degrees), (B) ankle power generation (watts/kg). Dorsi, Dorsiflexion; Plantar, Plantarflexion; Gen, Generation; Abs, Absorption.

  • Fig. 2 Postoperative knee kinematic and kinetic parameters in 8 patients with recurvatum knee gait patterns, as compared with preoperative and normal values. (A) knee flexion (degrees), (B) knee moment (Nm/kg). Flex, Flexion; Ext, Extension.

  • Fig. 3 Postoperative pelvic kinematic parameters on the transverse plane in 8 patients with the ipsilateral pelvic external rotation during gait cycle, as compared with preoperative and normal values. Int, Internal rotation; Ext, External rotation.

Cited by  1 articles

Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection for Spastic Equinovarus Foot in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: Effects on Gait and Foot Pressure Distribution
Ja Young Choi, Soojin Jung, Dong-wook Rha, Eun Sook Park
Yonsei Med J. 2016;57(2):496-504.    doi: 10.3349/ymj.2016.57.2.496.


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