Korean J Hepatol.  2003 Dec;9(4):315-323.

The Clinical Usefulness of Balloon Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration in Gastric Variceal Bleeding

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University, College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea. yokweon@knu.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Radiology, Kyungpook National University, College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastric variceal bleeding is difficult to treat endoscopically because the hemodynamics of the gastric varix are different from that of the esophageal varix. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), which has been used widely, does not always result in the regression of gastric varix and it may aggravate the hepatic encephalopathy. Balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) was introduced as a new procedure for gastric variceal bleeding with minimal invasiveness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects and complications on follow-up of BRTO as a new treatment option for gastric variceal bleeding. METHODS: Patients with gastric variceal bleeding, who were treated with BRTO form September, 2001 to April, 2003, were included in the study. After the definite confirmation of the shunts with abdominal CT, the sclerosing agent, 5% ethanolamine oleate, was injected into the gastric varix during occlusion through gastrorenal shunts. The procedurre was deemed a technical success when the clotting of the sclerosing agent was observed without leakage, and a clinical success when bleeding stopped and the varix decreased in size or was eradicated during the follow-up period (6-23 months, mean: 17.7). RESULTS: Technical success was achieved in 12 of 13 patients (92%) with gastric variceal bleeding. There were no significant side effects. In the one case of failure, the bleeding was controlled with TIPS. Eleven of the 12 patients who had technical success were shown to be clinically successful. The follow-up endoscopic exam showed some aggravation of pre-existing esophageal varices in four patients and a new development of esophageal varices in two patients. Endoscopic variceal ligation was done on one patient in whom esophageal variceal bleeding was present during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: BRTO was proven to be a feasible, safe and less invasive procedure than TIPS and found to be an effective treatment of a gastric variceal bleeding. Considering the possible aggravation of pre-existing esophageal varices or the new development of esophageal varices, regular endoscopic examinations might be needed during the follow-up period.

Keyword

Balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration; Varix/Gastric; Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

MeSH Terms

Adult
Aged
*Balloon Occlusion
English Abstract
Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications/*therapy
Female
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology/*therapy
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
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