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Mitochondrial Quality Control in the Heart: New Drug Targets for Cardiovascular Disease

Oh CM, Ryu D, Cho S, Jang Y

Despite considerable efforts to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD), it has become the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac mitochondria are crucial cell organelles responsible for creating energy-rich ATP...
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Oxidative Stress Modulates the Expression Pattern of Peroxiredoxin-6 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Asthmatic Patients and Bronchial Epithelial Cells

Shim HJ, Park SY, Kwon HS, Song WJ, Kim TB, Moon KA, Choi JP, Kim SJ, Cho YS

PURPOSE: Reduction-oxidation reaction homeostasis is vital for regulating inflammatory conditions and its dysregulation may affect the pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Peroxiredoxin-6, an important intracellular anti-oxidant...
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Innate Lymphoid Cells in the Airways: Their Functions and Regulators

Orimo K, Saito H, Matsumoto , Morita H

Since the airways are constantly exposed to various pathogens and foreign antigens, various kinds of cells in the airways—including structural cells and immune cells—interact to form a precise defense system...
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Enzymes involved in folate metabolism and its implication for cancer treatment

Kim SE

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Folate plays a critical role in DNA synthesis and methylation. Intracellular folate homeostasis is maintained by the enzymes folylpolyglutamate synthase (FPGS) and γ-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH). FPGS adds glutamate residues...
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Vitamin D Deficiency at Mid-Pregnancy Is Associated with a Higher Risk of Postpartum Glucose Intolerance in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Kim KS, Park SW, Cho YW, Kim SK

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) at mid-pregnancy and postpartum glucose intolerance in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: We enrolled 348 pregnant women diagnosed with...
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Current Understanding of Mineral and Bone Disorders of Chronic Kidney Disease and the Scientific Grounds on the Use of Exogenous Parathyroid Hormone in Its Management

Pazianas M, Miller PD

Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) disturbs mineral homeostasis leading to mineral and bone disorders (MBD). Serum calcium and phosphate (Pi) remain normal until the late stages of CKD at the expense...
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Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Immune-Related Adverse Events of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

Choi J, Lee SY

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been changing the paradigm of cancer treatment. However, immune-related adverse effects (irAEs) have also increased with the exponential increase in the use of ICIs. ICIs...
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Heterogeneity of Human γδ T Cells and Their Role in Cancer Immunity

Lee HW, Chung YS, Kim TJ

The γδ T cells are unconventional lymphocytes that function in both innate and adaptive immune responses against various intracellular and infectious stresses. The γδ T cells can be exploited as...
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Regulatory T Cells in Tumor Microenvironment and Approach for Anticancer Immunotherapy

Kim JH, Kim BS, Lee SK

Tregs have a role in immunological tolerance and immune homeostasis by suppressing immune reactions, and its therapeutic potential is critical in autoimmune diseases and cancers. There have been multiple studies...
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Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Plasticity

Nishida M, Tanaka T, Mangmool S, Nishiyama , Nishimura

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a pivotal role in the stability and tonic regulation of vascular homeostasis. VSMCs can switch back and forth between highly proliferative (synthetic) and fully...
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Quantifications of Lipid Kinetics In Vivo Using Stable Isotope Tracer Methodology

Kim IY, Park S, Jang J, Wolfe RR

Like other bodily materials, lipids such as plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterols, and free fatty acids are in a dynamic state of constant turnover (i.e., synthesis, breakdown, oxidation, and/or conversion to other...
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Intelectin-1 and Endocrinological Parameters in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Effect of Insulin Resistance

Al-Fartosy AJM, Awad NA, Mohammed A

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the effect of insulin resistance (IR) on serum Intelectin-1 and endocrinological hormones levels in obese and non-obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
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Cardiorenal syndrome

Kim MG

To maintain homeostasis of the cardiovascular system, the heart and kidney act bidirectionally. Therefore, acute or chronic dysfunction of one organ can cause dysfunction in the other. This phenomenon is...
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Prebiotics in the Infant Microbiome: The Past, Present, and Future

Miqdady M, Al Mistarihi J, Azaz A, Rawat D

The latest definition of a prebiotic is “a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit”; it now includes non-food elements and is applicable to extra-intestinal...
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Autophagy in neutrophils

Shrestha S, Lee JM, Hong CW

Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular degradation and energy-recycling mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Extensive researches over the past decades have defined the role of autophagy...
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¹H-NMR Analysis of Metabolic Changes Induced by Snf1/AMP-Activated Protein Kinase During Environmental Stress Responses

Kim J, Oh J, Yoon DH, Sung GH

AMP-activated protein kinase sucrose non-fermenting 1 (Snf1) is a representative regulator of energy status that maintains cellular energy homeostasis. In addition, Snf1 is involved in the mediation of environmental stress...
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Autophagy localization and cytoprotective role in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury

Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process that maintains homeostasis and cell integrity, under stress conditions. Although the involvement of autophagy in various conditions has been elucidated, the role of autophagy...
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Protective Effects of Ursolic Acid on Osteoblastic Differentiation via Activation of IER3/Nrf2

Lee SI

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is a known to be associated with in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, including periodontitis. Ursolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid with has antimicrobial, antioxidative, and...
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Effect of a Single Bout of Exercise on Autophagy Regulation in Skeletal Muscle of High-Fat High-Sucrose Diet-Fed Mice

Zhang D, Lee JH, Kwak SE, Shin HE, Zhang Y, Moon HY, Shin DM, Seong JK, Tang L, Song W

BACKGROUND: Autophagy maintains metabolic homeostasis of muscles, and its impairment may cause muscle dysfunction. Exercise can improve muscle dysfunction induced by long-term high-fat diet. This study aimed to explore the...
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Association Between Trp64arg Polymorphism of the β3 adrenoreceptor Gene and Female Sex in Obese Turkish Children and Adolescents

Yılmaz R, Ateş O, Gül A, Kasap T, Özer S, Ensari E

PURPOSE: The β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) is expressed in visceral adipose tissue and has been speculated to contribute to lipolysis, energy metabolism, and regulation of the metabolic rate. In this study,...
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