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Direct Reprogramming to Human Induced Neuronal Progenitors from Fibroblasts of Familial and Sporadic Parkinson’s Disease Patients

Lee M, Sim H, Ahn H, Ha J, Baek A, Jeon YJ, Son MY, Kim J

In Parkinson’s disease (PD) research, human neuroblastoma and immortalized neural cell lines have been widely used as in vitro models. The advancement in the field of reprogramming technology has provided...
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Modulation of Dopaminergic Neuronal Excitability by Zinc through the Regulation of Calcium-related Channels

Noh J, Chung JM

Depending on the intracellular buffering of calcium by chelation, zinc has the following two apparent effects on neuronal excitability: enhancement or reduction. Zinc increased tonic activity in the depolarized state...
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Asiatic Acid Protects Dopaminergic Neurons from Neuroinflammation by Suppressing Mitochondrial ROS Production

Chen D, Zhang XY, Sun J, Cong QJ, Chen WX, Ahsan HM, Gao J, Qian JJ

This study sought to evaluate the effects of Asiatic acid in LPS-induced BV2 microglia cells and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridine (MPP⁺)-induced SH-SY5Y cells, to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of Asiatic acid in...
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HDAC Inhibition by Valproic Acid Induces Neuroprotection and Improvement of PD-like Behaviors in LRRK2 R1441G Transgenic Mice

Kim T, Song S, Park Y, Kang S, Seo H

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the late-onset neurodegenerative movement disorder. Major pathological markers of PD include progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, Lewy body formation, genetic mutations, and environmental factors....
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Abnormal Mitochondria in a Non-human Primate Model of MPTP-induced Parkinson's Disease: Drp1 and CDK5/p25 Signaling

Park J, Seo J, Won J, Yeo HG, Ahn YJ, Kim K, Jin YB, Koo BS, Lim KS, Jeong KJ, Kang P, Lee HY, Baek SH, Jeon CY, Hong JJ, Huh JW, Kim YH, Park SJ, Kim SU, Lee DS, Lee SR, Lee Y

Mitochondria continuously fuse and divide to maintain homeostasis. An impairment in the balance between the fusion and fission processes can trigger mitochondrial dysfunction. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is...
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Delayed Treatment of Capsaicin Produces Partial Motor Recovery by Enhancing Dopamine Function in MPP⁺-lesioned Rats via Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor

Kim KI, Baek JY, Jeong JY, Nam JH, Park ES, Bok E, Shin WH, Chung YC, Jin BK

Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) on astrocytes prevents ongoing degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons in MPP⁺-lesioned rats via ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). The present study determined whether...
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Neuroprotective Effect of β-Lapachone in MPTP-Induced Parkinson's Disease Mouse Model: Involvement of Astroglial p-AMPK/Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathways

Park JS, Leem YH, Park JE, Kim DY, Kim HS

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta. In the present study, we investigated whether β-Lapachone (β-LAP), a...
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Neurogenesis and neuronal migration of dopaminergic neurons during mesencephalon development in mice

Kim MK, Lee SJ, Vasudevan , Won C

Dopaminergic neurons are one of the major neuronal components in the brain. Mesencephalon dopamine (DA) neurogenesis takes place in the ventricular zone of the floor plate, when DA progenitors divide...
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Regional difference in spontaneous firing inhibition by GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors in nigral dopamine neurons

Kim Y, Jang J, Kim HJ, Park MK

GABAergic control over dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra is crucial for determining firing rates and patterns. Although GABA activates both GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors distributed throughout the somatodendritic...
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Psychiatric Manifestation in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

Han JW, Ahn YD, Kim WS, Shin CM, Jeong SJ, Song YS, Bae YJ, Kim JM

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Although its major manifestation is motor symptoms, resulting from the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, psychiatric symptoms,...
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The Novel Neuroprotective Compound KMS99220 Has an Early Anti-neuroinflammatory Effect via AMPK and HO-1, Independent of Nrf2

Lee JA, Kim HR, Kim J, Park KD, Kim DJ, Hwang O

We have previously reported a novel synthetic compound KMS99220 that prevented degeneration of the nigral dopaminergic neurons and the associated motor deficits, suggesting a neuroprotective therapeutic utility for Parkinson's disease....
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Interleukin-4 Contributes to Degeneration of Dopamine Neurons in the Lipopolysaccharide-treated Substantia Nigra in vivo

Bok E, Cho EJ, Chung ES, Shin WH, Jin BK

The present study investigated the effects of interleukin (IL)-4 on dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in vivo of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rat. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry showed a significant...
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Macrophage migration inhibitory factor mediates peripheral nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity by curbing dopaminergic descending inhibition

Wang X, Ma S, Wu H, Shen X, Xu S, Guo X, Bolick ML, Wu S, Wang F

Our previous works disclosed the contributing role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and dopaminergic inhibition by lysine dimethyltransferase G9a/Glp complex in peripheral nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity. We herein propose that...
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Protection of nigral dopaminergic neurons by AAV1 transduction with Rheb(S16H) against neurotoxic inflammation in vivo

Kim S, Moon GJ, Oh YS, Park J, Shin WH, Jeong JY, Choi KS, Jin BK, Kholodilov N, Burke RE, Kim HJ, Ha CM, Lee SG, Kim SR

We recently reported that adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) transduction of murine nigral dopaminergic (DA) neurons with constitutively active ras homolog enriched in brain with a mutation of serine to...
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MPTP-induced vulnerability of dopamine neurons in A53T α-synuclein overexpressed mice with the potential involvement of DJ-1 downregulation

Lee S, Oh ST, Jeong HJ, Pak SC, Park HJ, Kim J, Cho HS, Jeon S

Familial Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked to point mutations and duplication of the α-synuclein (α-syn) gene. Mutant α-syn expression increases the vulnerability of neurons to exogenous insults. In this...
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Structure, Distribution, and Genetic Profile of α-Synuclein and Their Potential Clinical Application in Parkinson's Disease

Si X, Pu J, Zhang B

Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, is characterized by the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons. PD leads to a series of clinical symptoms, including...
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A High-fat Diet Induces a Loss of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neuronal Function That Underlies Motor Abnormalities

Jang Y, Lee MJ, Han J, Kim SJ, Ryu I, Ju X, Ryu MJ, Chung W, Oh E, Kweon GR, Heo JY

Movement defects in obesity are associated with peripheral muscle defects, arthritis, and dysfunction of motor control by the brain. Although movement functionality is negatively correlated with obesity, the brain regions...
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Optogenetic Rescue of Locomotor Dysfunction and Dopaminergic Degeneration Caused by Alpha-Synuclein and EKO Genes

Qi C, Varga S, Oh SJ, Lee CJ, Lee D

α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is a small presynaptic protein and its mutant forms (e.g. A53T) are known to be directly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying α-Syn-mediated neurodegeneration in PD...
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In vitro generation of mature midbrain-type dopamine neurons by adjusting exogenous Nurr1 and Foxa2 expressions to their physiologic patterns

Kim T, Song JJ, Puspita L, Valiulahi , Shim JW, Lee SH

Developmental information aids stem cell biologists in producing tissue-specific cells. Recapitulation of the developmental profile of a specific cell type in an in vitro stem cell system provides a strategy...
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Capsaicin prevents degeneration of dopamine neurons by inhibiting glial activation and oxidative stress in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease

Chung YC, Baek JY, Kim SR, Ko HW, Bok E, Shin WH, Won SY, Jin BK

The effects of capsaicin (CAP), a transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) agonist, were determined on nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease...
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