PURPOSE: This study was done to investigate the point prevalence of postpartum depression and its predictors during early postpartum in mother of preterm infants. METHODS: Participants were 101 women, 2-3 weeks after delivery whose preterm babies were hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit. Data were collected from June 2010 to January 2011. The instruments included 'Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale', 'Prenatal depression', 'Subjective health status of infant', 'Medical staff support', and 'Husband support'. Collected data were analyzed using t-test, chi2-test, and multiple logistic regression with SPSS/WIN version 18.0. RESULTS: The point prevalence was 86.1% that postpartum depression occurred during the early postpartum period in mothers of preterm infants. Three significant predictors of postpartum depression in mothers of preterm infants were identified; 'Type of delivery (OR, 5.57; 95% CI, 1.25-24.77)', 'Subjective health status of infant (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.16-0.70)', and 'Medical staff support (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.28-0.97)'. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that postpartum mothers should be screened for postpartum depression early in the postpartum period and that, medical personnel should pay particular attention to mothers with a caesarean section and should help mothers of preterm babies to develop positive perceptions of their babies.