PURPOSE: Purposes of this study were to identify the level of parental fever phobia and to investigate the relationship between level of parental concern about fever and related variables. METHODS: Participants were 151 parents of children who visited a pediatric outpatient clinic. A self-reported structured questionnaire was used for data collection and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi2-test. RESULTS: Almost half of participants defined a minimum temperature for fever as 37.8degrees C and a minimum temperature for high fever as 38.9degrees C. About 75% of participants identified harmful effects of fever as seizure and brain damage, were 'very worried' about fever, measured their child's temperature every hour or less, provided tepid massage and woke children to give antipyretics during febrile illness. There were significant relationships between level of parental concerns about fever and prior experience of febrile seizures, and/or being parents of a single child. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that fever phobia is prevalent among parents. Further studies are needed to develop and evaluate childhood fever management educational programs for parents. Considering health care providers as a primary information resource about fever management, health care providers should play a vital role to reduce parental unrealistic concerns about fever.