PURPOSE: The hepatic resection is the gold-standard treatment for patients with colorectal-cancer liver metastases (CLM). This study aimed to identify prognostic factors in patients with synchronous CLM who underwent a surgical curative (R0) resection with respect to the number of metastatic nodules. METHODS: Of 1,261 CLM patients treated between January 1991 and December 2010, 339 who underwent a R0 resection for synchronous CLM were included in this retrospective analysis. Patients were grouped according to the number of CLM nodules: 1-2 CLM nodules, n = 272 (group 1) and 3-8 CLM nodules, n = 67 (group 2). RESULTS: The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate in group 1was better than that in group 2 (P = 0.020). The multivariate analysis identified lymph-node metastasis (N2), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and three or more CLM nodules as independent poor prognostic factors for PFS in all patients and lymph-node metastasis (N2) and LVI as independent poor prognostic factors for patients in group 1. No independent prognostic factors were identified for patients in group 2. CLM treatment method and neoadjuvant chemotherapy were not associated with survival. CONCLUSION: Three or more metastatic nodules, lymph-node metastasis (N2), and LVI were independent poor prognostic factors for PFS in patients with synchronous CLM who underwent a R0 resection. The latter 2 factors were also independent prognostic factors for PFS in patients with less than 3 CLM nodules; however, in patients with three or more CLM nodules, the prognosis for PFS may be related only to liver metastasis.