PURPOSE: Because colonoscopy after colorectal cancer surgery is important for detecting synchronous or metachronous colorectal neoplasms, we designed this study to investigate, by using postoperative colonoscopy, the miss rate for and the location of polyps remaining after colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: In a prospectively-collected patient database, 264 patients were shown to have undergone a colorectal cancer resection between May 2012 and June 2013. Of these, 116 who had received a complete colonoscopy preoperatively and postoperatively were included in this study. RESULTS: Of these 116 patients, 68 were males and 48 were females; their mean age was 63 years. The mean time after surgery at which postoperative colonoscopy was performed was 7.1 months (range, 3-15 months). On postoperative colonoscopy, a total of 125 polyps were detected. Of these, there were no cancerous lesions; 46 (36.8%) were neoplastic polyps, and 79 (63.2%) were nonneoplastic polyps. Fifty-nine polyps (47.2%) and 15 polyps (12%) were located in the proximal and the distal parts of the anastomosis, respectively. The miss rates for the total numbers of polyps and of neoplastic polyps remaining after surgery were 37.4% and 24.2%, respectively. The incidence of neoplastic polyps increased during postoperative colonoscopy as it had during preoperative colonoscopy (r = 0.164, P = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Colonoscopic surveillance after colorectal cancer resection results in the detection of pathologic polyps in one-fourth of the cases. During postoperative colonoscopy, careful examination of the proximal colon is necessary. Patients in whom multiple neoplastic polyps had been detected during preoperative colonoscopy require careful and thorough follow-up.