Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hundreds of colorectal adenomatous polyps that progress to colorectal cancer. Management of patients with FAP is with a total colectomy. Chemopreventive strategies have been studied in FAP patients in an effort to delay the development of adenomas in the upper and the lower gastrointestinal tract and to prevent recurrence of adenomas in the retained rectum of patients after prophylactic surgery. Sulindac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, causes regression of colorectal adenomas in the retained rectal segment of FAP patients. However, evidence regarding long-term use of this therapy and its effect on the intact colon has been insufficient. We report a case in which the long-term use of sulindac was effective in reducing the size and the number of colonic polyps in patients with FAP without a prophylactic colectomy and polypectomy; we also present a review of the literature.