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J Menopausal Med. 2018 Aug;24(2):119-126. English. Original Article.
Ahn JH , Noh YH , Um KJ , Kim HS , Cho S .
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea.


To investigate if vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and circulating vitamin D levels are associated with pelvic floor disorders (PFDs).


In this case-control study, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25[OH]D) serum levels were analyzed in 47 females with PFDs and 87 healthy females (controls), respectively. The VDR gene polymorphisms were determined by using polymerase chain reaction and performing digestions with 4 restriction enzymes i.e., ApaI, TaqI, FokI, and BsmI. Vitamin D levels of patients were divided into < 20 ng/mL, 20 to 30 ng/mL, and ≥30 ng/mL categories.


Our correlative analysis of VDR polymorphisms as a function of the presence of PFD showed that ApaI and BsmI polymorphisms were significantly associated with PFD in vitamin-D-deficiency and insufficiency groups (P < 0.05). Mean vitamin D levels did not differ between the PFD case (13.01 ± 0.84 ng/mL) and control (15.11 ± 1.04 ng/mL) groups (P > 0.05). However, there was a significant difference in the distribution of vitamin D levels between study group and controls using Pearson's χ² test (< 20 ng/mL, 20–30 ng/mL, and >30 ng/mL: 87.2%, 12.8%, and 0% in the study group and 75.9%, 16.1%, and 8.0% in controls, respectively, P < 0.05). Taken together, our observations suggest that vitamin D levels could be associated with PFDs and that 2 polymorphisms (i.e., ApaI and BsmI) in the VDR gene may contribute to an increased prevalence of PFDs in women with insufficient levels of vitamin D.


Examining vitamin D levels and performing a VDR genotype analysis may be helpful for assessing PFD risk.

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