OBJECTIVES: To investigate the number of leiomyoma patients-exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and to observe whether the serum concentration of BPA is related to leiomyoma growth. METHODS: A total of 158 patients were recruited for this study. Leiomyoma patients were divided into three groups, mild (n = 48), moderate (n = 32) and severe (n = 28), according to the size of leiomyomas. The control (n = 30) group was defined as having no leiomyomas. Transvaginal ultrasonography was used to identify and measure the leiomyomas. Serum BPA concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: BPA was detected in 87.0% out of a total of 158 samples, and in 86.0% out of 108 leiomyoma patients. In detail, the detection rates of serum BPA were 88.0% in the control group, 77.2% in the mild group, 90.0% in the moderate group and 96.0% in the severe group. The mean BPA concentration in the control group was 0.558 +/- 0.097 ng/mL, the leiomyoma groups, the mean BPA concentrations were 0.274 +/- 0.063 ng/mL (mild), 0.346 +/- 0.064 ng/mL (moderate) and 0.647 +/- 0.039 ng/mL (severe) (P = 0.0003). Values represent the mean +/- standard error. CONCLUSION: The detection rates of serum BPA in the control and leiomyoma groups were 88.0% and 86.0%, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in the serum BPA concentrations between the control and leiomyoma groups. To verify the effect of BPA on leiomyoma growth, a close and sequential monitoring is recommended for people who are at risk for uterine leiomyoma.