OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to find out the efficacy of cytology and HPV DNA test (Hybrid capture I) in early diagnosis of cervical cancer. METHODS: This study included 1028 patients who visited the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cho-sun University Hospital From December 1, 1995 to March 31, 1998. And we chose 305 samples who underwent biopsies among taking the cytology and HPV DNA test. All women simultaneously underwent an exo- and endo-cervical smear. RESULTS: 1. The sensitivity and specificity of cytology were 63.0% and 88.1%, respectively. 2. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of cytology were 89.7% and 59.3%, respectively. 3. The sensitivity and specificity of HPV DNA test were 51.9% and 85.3%, respectively. 4. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of HPV DNA test were 85.2% and 52.1%, respectively. 5. When HPV DNA test and Papanicloaou smear were combined, the sensitivity and specificity were 76.9% and 76.9%, respectively. However, the specificity of the combined test with HPV DNA test and Papanicloaou smear was lower than Papanicloaou smear alone. CONCLUSION: The sensitivity of cervical cytology was markedly improved by combination with HPV DNA test. So, the combined test could improve the high false negativity of cervical cytology, if the effectiveness is confirmed by mass screening study.